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παρὰ ἅπαν—‘along the whole line’. A front of 448 men with an average depth of eight, 600 Sciritae being added, makes the Lacedaemonian division 4184 strong. ἦν—Xen. Cyr. ii. 1, 25, ἡ τάξις ἦν ἑκατὸν ἄνδρες: Prop. v. 1, 14, centum illi in prato saepe senatus erat. παραινέσεις—the usual addresses which Greek soldiers expected before an engagement: cf. iv. 95, 1, δἰ ὀλίγου ἠ παραίνεσις γίγνεται: iv. 93, 1, τοιαῦτα παραινέσας. παρακέλευσις and παρακελεύεσθαι are used in the same way. καὶ ὑπὲρ ἀρχῆς ἅμα—‘and withal for empire or subjection’. The following explanatory infinitives are connected with ἡ μάχη ἔσται, as in ii. 89, 10, ὁ ἀγὼν μέγας ἢ καταλῦσαι...ἢ καταστῆσαι. πειρασαμένοις—‘after once enjoying it’, i.e. after once gaining the position of a sovereign state; see ch. 29. The alternative was sinking again into political subordination to Sparta. For the dative we might expect πειρασαμένους: but see note on ch. 64, 10. Ἀργείοις δέ—sc. παραίνεσις ἐγίγνετο: the construction with ὐπέρ, and the following infinitives, being connected with this rather than with ἡ μάχη ἔσται. τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ..εἶναι, line 11, depends on the same. τῆς παλαιᾶς ἡγεμονίας—under the Atreidae. The claim of ἰσομοιρία was made in the days of the Persian invasion: see Hdt. vii. 148, where the Argives were willing to join Sparta, ἡγεόμενοι κατὰ τὸ ἥμισυ τάσης τῆς συμμαχίης: καίτοι κατά γε τὸ δίκαιον γίγνεσθαι τὴν ἡγεμονίην ἑωυτῶν, ἀλλ̓ ὅμως σφίσιν ἀποχρᾶν κατὰ τὸ ἥμισυ ἡγεομένοισι. διὰ παντός—‘always’: iv. 61, 4, πέφυκε τὸ ἁνθρώπειον διὰ παντὸς ἄρχειν τοῦ εἴκοντος: so i. 38, 1. ἀστυγείτονας—cf. iv. 92, 3, Ἀθηναίους δὲ καὶ προσέτι ο:μόρους ὄντας πολλῷ μάλιστα (ἀμύνεσθαι) δεῖ: vi. 88, 1, τοῖς Συρακοσίοις ἀεὶ κατὰ τὸ ὅμορον διἀφοροι. The aorist ἀμύνασθαι implies ‘once for all’, that is, in the coming battle. καὶ ὅτι—The sentence now takes a sort of semi-direct form of expression. ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ—thus turning the tables on the Spartans; hitherto the Athenians had only attacked the enemy's coast. οὐ μή—this strong negative occurs only in one other passage, iv. 95, 2, where Hippocrates addresses the Atheniansin much the same words; ἢν νικήσωμεν οὐ μή ποτε ὑμῖν Πελοποννήσιοι ἐς τὴν χώραν ..ἐσβάλωσιν. There is the same ethical dative in both sentences, αὐτοῖς=‘they would have them’. καθ̓ ἑκάστους—usually taken of the Lacedaemonian soldiers exhorting one another ‘man by man’. Herbst and Classen however seem right in understanding the plural, as in ch. 68, 4, rather of the ‘several contingents’ of the army, who are all included under the name of Lacedaemonians, as they are in the beginning of the next chapter. The main constiuction of the sentence belongs to the divisions with τε and καί alike, while μετὰ τῶν πολεμικῶν νόμων is specially connected with ἐν σφίσιν αὐτοῖς, the Lacedaemonians themselves. πολεμικῶν νόμων—war-songs, according to the scholiast; τὰ ἄσματα ἅπερ ᾖδον οἱ Αακεδαιμόνιοι μέλλοντες μάχεσθαι. Kruger however takes the meaning to be ‘military usages’, on the ground that the war-songs would not come in till the actual onset. ὧν ἠπίσταντο κ.τ.λ —‘called on their trusty comrades to remember what they knew so well’=παρεκελεύοντο μεμνῆσθαι. ἀγαθοῖς οὖσιν is taken by Poppo and others as agreeing with σφίσιν αὐτοῖς. It seems however rather governed by τὴν παρακέλευσιν ἐποιοῦντο: and is a sort of semi-quotation, representing παρακελευόμεθα ὑμῖν ἀγαθοῖς οὖσιν. Some editors however find a difficulty in the words, and sundry unsatisfactory suggestions and emendations are noted in Classen and Fowler. Arnold compares with the present passage iv. 95, 1, ἡ παραίνεσις. .πρὸς τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἄνδρας . ὑμόμνησιν μᾶλλον ἔχει ἢ ἐπικέλευσιν: so vi. 68, 4, τῆς ὑμετέρας αὐτῶν ἀξίας μνησθέντες ἐπέλθετε τοῖς ἐναντίοις.
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