9. impiae, impious (in its strict sense a want of filial duty). arcem et Capitolium: the Capitoline was a saddle-shaped hill, having the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (Capitolium) on the southwestern point and the old citadel (arx) on the northeastern (see Cat. 3, sect. 20). Since Jupiter Capitolinus was the protecting divinity of Rome, his temple was the most sacred spot in the whole empire. aras Penatium: the Penates were gods of the household and the larder (penus), worshipped by every paterfamilias in his own atrium. The state, being developed from the family, had likewise its Penates, which were fabled to have been brought by Aeneas from Troy and established at Lavinium, whence they were transferred to Alba Longa, and afterwards to Rome. Their temple was on the Velia, the low hill Connecting the Palatine and Esquiline. ignem Vestue: the temple of Vesta was on the Sacra Via, toward the Palatine, — a small round building containing the symbolic household fire of the Roman state. see note on the Vestals, p. 130, l. 19. focis: the focus, the symbol of household life, was a brazier for burning charcoal. It originally stood at the rear end of the atrium, or great hall, of the house. Later it was moved, for all practical purposes, to the kitchen, but a representative focus remained in the atrium and continued to be the symbol of household life.
quae facultas: § 307, e (201, d); cf. B. 251, 4, b; G. 616, 2; H.-B. 327. in civili causa, on a political question. quantis . . . delerit: this clause will be best turned into English by translating the participles fundatum, etc., as verbs, and delerit as a relative clause, — with how great toil this empire was established, which one night, etc. In Latin the question is contained in the interrogative modifiers of imperium and not in the main clause.