propinquus, kinsman. It is not known what was the relationship of Tubero to Cicero.

Tubero: Q. Aelius Tubero, the prosecutor, was the son of L. Aelius Tubero, the Pompeian commander, and was lying sick on board his father's ship at the time when Ligarius prevented the landing in Africa (see Introd., p. 2?5 of text). Cicero throughout the speech conveys the impression that personal resentment was at the bottom of Q. Tubero's action in opposing the pardon of Ligarius.

Pansa: C. Vibius, cos. B.C. 43 (see Phil. xiv), at this time a leading supporter of Caesar. He was a petitioner for Ligarius.

quo me vertam, which way to turn.

necessarius: Cicero's necessitudo to Pansa appears to have consisted in their working together in behalf of Ligarius.

ut . . . esset (obj. of fecerit), that it is no longer a new case.

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