AoristThe aorist expresses past time and simple aspect.
- Specific Aorist: The aorist denotes a simple action in the past. Smyth 1923-1930 “ἐνίκησαν οἱ Κερκυραῖοι καὶ ναῦς πέντε καὶ δέκα διέφθειραν” Thuc. 1.29; the Corcyraeans were victorious and destroyed fifteen ships
- Gnomic Aorist: The aorist can express a general truth and, in this case, should be translated as a present. Smyth 1931-1932 “κάλλος μὲν γὰρ ἢ χρόνος ἀνήλωσεν ἢ νόσος ἐμάρανε” Isoc. 1.6; for beauty is either wasted by time or withered by disease
- Iterative Aorist: The aorist can indicate repeated action in past time when accompanied by ἄν. Smyth 1933 “εἶπεν ἄν” Xen. Cyrop. 7.1.14 he used to say
- Past Contrafactual Condition: The aorist or imperfect indicative stands in the protasis of past contrafactual conditions. The aorist or imperfect indicative with ἄν stands in the apodosis. Smyth 2302-2312 “οὐκ ἂν ἐποίησεν Ἀγασίας ταῦτα, εἰ μὴ ἐγὼ αὐτὸν ἐκέλευσα” Xen. Anab. 6.6.15; Agasias would not have done this, if I had not commanded him
- Past Simple Conditions: The imperfect, aorist, or pluperfect indicative stands in the protasis and apodosis of past simple conditions. Smyth 2298-2301 “εἴ τέ τι ἄλλο . . . ἐγένετο ἐπικίνδυνον τοῖς Ἕλλησι, πάντων . . . μετέσχομεν” Thuc. 3.54; and if any other danger befell the Greeks, we took our share in all