PresentThe present tense denotes an action in the present time with continuing aspect.
- Specific Present: The present denotes an action in progress at the present time. Smyth 1875-1876 “ἀληθῆ λέγω” Lys. 13.72; I am telling the truth
- Gnomic Present: The present can denote a general truth. Smyth 1877 “ἄγει δὲ πρὸς φῶς τὴν ἀλήθειαν χρόνος” Men. Sent. 11 time brings the truth to light
- Historical Present: The present may be used in narrative to present a more vivid picture of an action. Smyth 1883-1884 “ὁ δὲ Θεμιστοκλῆς φεύγει ἐς Κέρκυραν . . . διακομίζεται ἐς τὴν ἤπειρον” Thuc. 1.136 Themistocles fled (flees) to Corcyra . . . was (is) transported to the mainland
- Present Simple Conditions: The present or perfect indicative stands in the protasis of present simple conditions. The present or perfect indicative stands in the apodosis. Smyth 2298-2301 “εἰ οὖν βούλεσθε, ἔξεστιν ὑμῖν ἡμᾶς λαβεῖν ξυμμάχους” Xen. Anab. 5.4.6; If you wish, you can take us as allies
- Present General Conditions: The subjunctive with ἐάν stands in the protasis of present general conditions. The present indicative stands in the apodosis Smyth 2337-2339 “ἀδικοῦντα, ἢν λάβῃς, κολάζεις;” Xen. Cyrop. 3.1.11; Do you punish a wrong-doer if you catch him?