IUPPITER STATOR, AEDES
a temple vowed, according to
tradition (BC 1917, 79-84
), by Romulus at the critical moment in the
battle between the Romans and the Sabines when the former had been
driven across the forum valley to the porta Mugonia (Liv. i. 12
ps. Cic. orat. pr. quam in exilium iret
24; Ov. Fast. vi. 794
; Flor. i. I. 13; de vir. ill. 2. 8). The epithet stator appears in
Greek as ὀπθώσιος
(Dionys.) and στήσιος
(App. Plut.). This temple
was never built, but in 294 B.C. the consul, M. Atilius Regulus, made a
similar vow under similar circumstances in a battle with the Samnites,
and erected the temple immediately afterwards (Liv. x. 36
. II, 37. 15).
Livy explains that no actual building had been put up by Romulus,
but fanum tantum, id est locus templo effatus
-an attempt to reconcile
fact with what had evidently become the popular tradition (Cic. Cat.
; ps. Cic. loc. cit.). Its site is variously indicated-in Palatii radice,
ps. Cic.; ante Palatini ora iugi, Ov.; ad veterem portam Palatii
ἐν ἀρχῇ τῆς ἱερᾶς ὁδοῦ παρὰ ταῖς καλουμέναις Μουγωνίσι πύλαις
, Dionys.; ἐν αρχῇ τῆς ἱερᾶς ὁδοῦ πρὸς τὸ Παλάτιον ἀνιότων
, Plut. Cic. 16; cf. Ov. Trist. iii. I. 32; Liv. i.
. 4; Plin. NH xxxiv. 29
; App. BC ii. ii), and Not. places it in
. It is represented on the relief of the Haterii (Mon. d. Inst. v.
) as hexastyle, of the Corinthian order, and facing the clivus Palatinus.
Cicero called the senate together in this temple (Cic. Cat. ii. 12
Cic. loc. cit.; Plut. Cic. 16), which was probably not unusual; and in
it was kept what was evidently a bit of liturgy composed by Livius
Andronicus (Liv. xxvii. 37
. 7). The day of dedication is given by Ovid
(Fast. vi. 793
) as 27th January, but this may perhaps be that of a later
restoration, and not of Regulus' temple (WR 122-123). In fact, we
learn from Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, I I, that either this temple or that
in the porticus Metelli was dedicated on 5th September; and, as Hemer.
Urb. (cited below) associates that temple with that of luno Regina,
the reference in Fast. Ant. may be taken to be to the temple now
under discussion. Two inscriptions of the later empire (CL vi. 434
435) probably belong to this temple, and it is mentioned in the fourth
Just east of the arch of Titus, a site corresponding with the literary
references, are ruins consisting of a large rectangular platform of concrete,
on which are some enormous blocks of peperino and travertine (Hermes,
1885, 412). On this foundation the mediaeval turris Cartularia was
built (for the explanation of this name, see Rend. dei Lincei 1912,
; AJA 1913, 569
which was not torn down until 1829. This
foundation has generally been identified as that of the temple of Iuppiter
Stator of the Flavian period (LR 200; HC 250-252; CR 1905, 75
; BC 1903, 18
; 1914, 93
; 1917, 79-84
; TF 89; DR 178-182; RE Suppl.
, 481). Some tufa walls, recently excavated close to the north-
east side of the arch and beneath its foundations, may have belonged to
the temple at an earlier date when its position was slightly different
(YW 1908, 23
; CR 1909, 61
), but the supposition is very doubtful.
Others have sought it on the area Palatina, but wrongly (HJ 22).
For a republican inscription on some blocks of tufa there (not on our
site), see CIL i'. 1009=vi. 29842 (cf. 36615). It bears the names of two
Greek artificers Philocrates and Diodes. See HJ 20-23; Rosch. ii.