previous next


In the battle of Sentinum, 295 B.C., the dictator, Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus, vowed a temple (aedes) to Iuppiter Victor, to whom he afterwards offered the spoils collected from the Samnites in sacrifice (Liv. x. 29. 14, 18). Livy's statement (x. 42. 7) that in 293 L. Papirius, at the battle of Aquilonia, vowed a cup of new wine to luppiter Victor, is sometimes interpreted as meaning that Fabius' temple had been dedicated by that time, but this is quite hypothetical. According to Ovid (Fast. iv. 621) and Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 92, the day of dedication of the temple (templa) was the Ides of April. Josephus states (Ant. Iud. xix. 4. 3) that after the murder of Caligula in 41 A.D. the consuls summoned the senate εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ νικηφόρου Διός; and Cassius Dio (Ix. 35) mentions among the prodigies of 54 A.D. 17 αὐτόματος τοῦ ναοῦ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Νικαίου ἄνοιξις. These all seem to refer to the same temple, presumably the same aedes Iovis Victoris that is mentioned as standing in Region X in the fourth century in the Notitia (Curiosum om. Victoris). If so, the temple was on the Palatine, but this depends solely on the Notitia (BC 1917, 84-92, where it is maintained to be of very early origin).

Among the prodigies of 42 B.C. the striking of lightning ἐς τὸν τοῦ Νικαίου Διὸς βωμόνες is reported (Cass. Dio xlvii. 40. 2), evidently an altar outside a temple or quite by itself; and in a similar list for the preceding year the same author states (xlv. 17. 2) κεραυνοί τε γὰρ παμπληθεῖς ἔπεσον καὶ ἐς τὸν τῷ Διὶ τῷ Καπιτωλίῳ ἐν τῷ Νικαίῳ ὄντα κατεσκηψαν. The interpretation of this last passage is not perfectly clear (Jord. i. 2. 50), but it is sometimes regarded as evidence for the existence of a shrine of Iuppiter Victor on the Capitoline, although probably wrongly. An inscription found on the Quirinal (CIL il. 638 =vi. 438 =30767 a, [D] Iovei victore T. Aebu[ti] M. f. iiivir [resti]tuit) attributed 1 to T. Aebutius Carus, triumvir coloniae deducendae in 183 B.C., is also believed to prove the existence of a shrine of the same god on that hill, but the whole question of the temple or temples of Iuppiter Victor is still unsettled, and the uncertainty is increased by Ovid's statement (Fast. vi. 650) that on the Ides of June invicto sunt data templa Iovi. Invictus is a less frequent cognomen, occurring in some inscriptions, but is probably an alternative for victor. This temple cannot, in any case, be that referred to by Ovid in the earlier passage (see above). No identification of the Palatine temple with any existing remains is now tenable (HJ 50; Rosch. ii. 679-681; Gilb. iii. 427; BC 1917, 84-89; RE x. 1134-1135; TF 92-94, n. 2; WR 123).

1 The emendation is Mommsen's: Hiibner (EE ii. p. 41, cf. CIL i². 802; HJ 409, n. 43; ILS 994) reads T. Mefu[lan(us)] and, at the beginning, [..]o . Iovei, following the seventeenth century copy, which is our only source for the inscription. CIL vi. 475 (P. Corn. v. f. coso. proba. mar.) may have been inscribed on the side of the same base. The temple is probably alluded to in Quint. i. 4. 17.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
54 AD (1)
41 AD (1)
42 BC (1)
295 BC (1)
293 BC (1)
183 BC (1)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: