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a statue of the Phrygian Silenus, which stood in an enclosure in the middle of the forum, together with the figtree, olive and vine (see FICUS, OLEA, VITIS), near the TRIBUNAL PRAETORIS (q.v.), and the lacus Curtius (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 120 and Ps. Acron and Porphyrion ad loc.; Sen. de benef. vi. 32; Mart. ii. 64. 7; Plin. NH xxi. 8-9; Juv. ix. 2; Hulsen, Nachtrag 15-19).

This statue appears in relief on the famous plutei (see reff. under ROSTRA AUGUSTI); and coins struck by L. Marcius Censorinus between 86 and 81 B.C. (Babelon, Monnaies, Marcia 42; BM. Rep. i. 338, pl. xl. 3-4) represent the satyr standing on a square pedestal with right foot advanced, a wine skin thrown over his left shoulder with his left hand holding its opening, and his right hand raised. The statue is nude except for sandals and the Phrygian hat (pileus), and represents the Greek type of the fourth century B.C. How long before 8 B.C. this statue was erected in the forum, and why it was brought here, we do not know. According to a recent ingenious theory it was brought from Apamea in 188 B.C. by Cn. Manlius Vulso because of the legendary connection of that city with the tomb of Aeneas, and placed near the lacus Curtius because of a certain parallelism between the legendary self-sacrifice of an Apamean hero and Curtius (A. Reinach, Klio 1914, 321-337). The statue was often crowned with flowers, and a certain P. Munatius was once thrown into prison for stealing them (Plin. NH xxi. 8-9).

Marsyas came to be regarded as the symbol of liberty (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 20) and under the empire his statue was set up in the fora of those towns in the provinces that possessed the ius Italicum (Cagnat, Timgad 68; CIL viii. 4219, 16417; 1 for the Marsyas of the forum, see also Jord. Marsyas auf d. Forum in Rom, Berlin 1883; i. 2. 265-266; AA 1891, 14-15; Mitt. 1892, 287-288; Gilb. iii. 156; Thedenat 134-135).

1 Cf. Mommsen, Staatsrecht iii. 809, 8o1; Merlin, Forum et Maisons d'Althiburos (Paris, 1913), 9. This is denied by J. S. Reid, Municipalities of the Roman Empire, 286. For a recent attribution of the plutei to the enclosure of this statue, see M61. 1927, 154-183.

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