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a temple in the campus Martius, built before 214 B.C. for in that year-and again in 197-it was struck by lightning (Liv. xxiv. 10. 9: aedem in campo Volcani; xxxi. 29. 1). Tradition ascribed it to Romulus himself (Plut. Rom. 27; q. Rom. 47). It was outside the walls of the city (Vitr. i. 7. I : (ut) Volcani vi e moenibus religionibus et sacrificiis evocata ab timore incendiorum aedificia videantur liberari; Plut. q. Rom. 47). Near it Verres had erected gilded equestrian statues presented to him by the aratores of Sicily (Cic. in Verr. ii. 150, 167). On 23rd August, the Volcanalia, sacrifice was offered to Vulcan (see VOLCANAL). The calendars differ, however, the Fasti Vallenses (ad Kal. Sept., CIL ia. p. 240) reading Volcano in circo Flaminio, while the Arvales (CIL i. p. 215; cf. vi. 32482) contain no indication of place unless Volcano is to be united with the following Nymphis in campo. (Nor is there any indication of place in Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 109.) If this is so, it would suggest a possible site at the north end of the Saepta (for the discussion of this question, see CIL iP. p. 326-327; EE i. p. 230; Neue Heidelberger Jahrbiicher, 1899, 116-117; HJ 481-483; cf. BC 1914, 176 sqq.). This site, however, is far from the circus Flaminius and makes it necessary to assume an error in the Fasti Vallenses. For a discussion of the origin of the cult of Vulcan and his identification with other deities, see Carcopino, Virgile et les Origines d'Ostie 87-167.

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