HERCULES POMPEIANUS, AEDES
* a temple of Hercules near the circus
Maximus, described as araeostyle and decorated in the Tuscan manner
(Vitr. iii. 3
. 5: ornanturque signis fictilibus aut aereis inauratis earum
fastigia Tuscanico more uti est ad circum maximum Cereris et Herculis
Pompeiani, item Capitolii
). It contained a statue of Hercules by Myron
(Plin. NH xxxiv. 57
: Herculem qui est apud circum maximum in aede
). The epithet would indicate either an original building
or a restoration by Pompeius, but in any case this temple could not be
identified with the round temple of Hercules in the forum Boarium (Liv.
. 3). The notice in the calendar (Fast. Amit. ad pr. Id. Aug., CIL i².
p. 244, 324-and probably Fast. Allif. ib. 217-Herculi Invicto ad circum
) probably refers to this temple, as it alone has the designation
ad circum maximum in literature (see above). If so, it was dedicated
on 12th August to Hercules Invictus.
Under the eastern part of S. Maria in Cosmedin are remains of the
tufa foundations and walls of a temple of the republican period, which
appears to have existed, although in a ruined state, until the time of
Hadrian I, when it was entirely destroyed (DAP 2. vi. 236, 237, 271;
HCh 327-328). The position of this temple could properly be described
as ad circum maximum, and its identification with the aedes Herculis
Pompeiani is reasonable, but by no means certain. It is possible that
some of the references to a temple of Hercules in foro Boario may belong
to this temple, but it seems certain that it cannot be identified with the
round temple in the forum Boarium, or with the temple ad portam
Trigeminam. This distinction, however, involves a contradiction of
Macrobius' statement (iii. 6. 10: Romae autem Victoris Herculis aedes
duae sunt, una ad portam Trigeminam altera in foro Boario
), and no
satisfactory reconciliation has yet been suggested (HJ 147-148; Gilb.
; Jord. i. 2
. 482; Rosch. i. 2904
, 2918-2920; RE viii. 554
560; WR 275 ; Altm. 30).