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Book 6 (ζ

[2] ἀρημένος. This word the Schol. interprets by “βεβλαμμένος”. It is used ( Od.9. 403) to express the affliction of the blinded Cyclops; and ( Od.18. 53) the miserable plight of Odysseus when disguised as a beggar, “δύῃ ἀρημένος”. In Il.18. 435 we have “γήραϊ λυγρῷ ἀρ.”, and in Od.11. 136γήραι ὑπὸ λιπαρῷ ἀρ.” The etymology is uncertain. Döderl. regards it as a perfect participle from “ἀρᾶν”, a simpler form of “ἀράσσειν”, comparing “ἀρατὸν ἕλκοςSoph. Ant.972, and suggesting a connection with “ἀραιός”. Düntzer refers it to “ἀρή” (“α^”), a word itself of doubtful derivation; cp. “ἀρὴν ἀμῦναι Il.12. 334.Thiersch takes it from a form “ϝαρέω” = “βαρέω”, as if it were “ϝε ϝαρημένος”, and this notion of ‘over-weighed’ suits well with a similar phrase, “καμάτῳ ἁδηκότες ἠδὲ καὶ ὕπνῳ Od.12. 281.Unless we can translate ὕπνῳ by ‘sleepiness,’ we must regard the whole expression as an instance of syllepsis; as in Tacit. Ann.4. 14‘ubi nocte et laetitia incaluisse videt;’ or it may be a sort of “ἓν διὰ δυοῖν”, meaning ‘oppressed with the sleep that weariness brings.’ Cp. Horace, Od.3. 4. 11‘ludo fatigatumque somno.’ Some interpreters, according to Eustath., joined “ὕπνῳ” with “καθεῦδε”.

[4] εὐρυχόρῳ, see on Od. 4.635; and Eustath. ad loc. “ἀεὶ παρ᾽ Ὁμήρῳ εὐρύχορος συστέλλει τὴν παραλήγουσαν, ἔνθα δηλαδὴ ἔστιν εὐρὺ χορεύειν. τὸ δέ γε παρὰ τοῖς ὕστερον εὐρύχορον πλάτος μόνον χώρας δηλοῖ”.

Ὑπερείῃ, see on Od. 5.34.

[5] ὑπερηνορεόντων (“ὑπέρ, ἀνήρ”) is usually in Od.the epithet of the “μνηστῆρες”. In the Iliad it is only used twice; of the Trojans, Il.4. 176; of Deiphobus, Il.13. 258.The word is in the form of a participle from a present “ὑπερηνορέω”, which is not found (cp. “ὑπερμενέων”); nor does the adjective “ὑπερήνωρ” occur in Homer, except as a proper name, Il.14. 516, though it is found in Hesiod , Hesiod Theog.995; Eur. Phoen.185.The change of the “α” to “η” is illustrated by “ἠνεμόεις” from “ἄνεμος”.

[6] βίηφι δέ. This gives the reason of their being able to oppress their Phaeacian neighbours.

[7] ἄγεεἷσεν. The change of tense shows that the second fact is the result and completion of the first.

[9] τεῖχος. Walls are mentioned first, not only because they mark the site and size of the city, but as showing that their former experience had taught the Phaeacians to live in a ‘fenced city,’ where they might defend themselves against dangerous neighbours.

[10] ἐδάσσατο, sc. allotted them for cultivation; so “ἄρουραι” is used of an inheritance, Il.22. 489.Cp. Tacit. Germ. 26.

[18] δὔ ἀμφίπολοι. So Penelope ( Od.1. 331) is accompanied by two handmaidens. The present passage shows that the maidens slept in their young mistress's room at night; probably upon mattresses on the floor, placed so near the door that it could not be opened without waking the attendants.

χαρίτων. Homer mentions no definite number of ‘Graces,’ and names only one, “Πασιθέην” (i.e. “πᾶσι θέα”, omnibus spectaculum) “χαρίτων μίαν ὁπλοτεράων Il.14. 275.And in Il.18. 382 the wife of Hephaestus is called “Χάρις”, named by Hesiod , Hesiod Theog.945, Aglaia. “Χάριτες” are described as attendants of Aphrodite Hom. Od.8. 364, and, generally, “habebatur Gratiarum donum quicquid venustum aut gratum erat, teste Pindaro, Olymp. 14” (Bothe ad loc.). Hesiod ( Hesiod Theog.909 foll.) calls them daughters of Eurynome, and names them Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia. Later mythology represented them as the daughters of Aphrodite by Bacchus. The cult of the “Χάριτες” was doubtless of very old standing in the Boeotian Orchomenus, in Sparta, Athens, and Paros. In Sparta, only two were worshipped, by the names of “Κλήτα” and “Φαέννα”: in Athens they were called “Αὐξώ” and “Ἡγεμόνη”.

[19] ἐπέκειντο (cp. “ἐπιθεῖναι Il.5. 751), ‘were closed;’ i. e. ‘lay to,’ on their “σταθμοί”.

[20] ἀνέμου ὡς πνοιή. Cp.

Διὸς δ̓ ἐριούνιος Ἑρμῆς
δοχμωθεὶς μεγάροιο διὰ κλήιθρον ἔδυνε,
αὔρῃ ὀπωρινῇ ἐναλίγκιος

, Virg. Aen.6. 702par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno.

[23] ὁμηλικίη, equivalent to “ὁμῆλιξ”, as Od.3. 49.

[24] μιν is governed by προσέφη, and is not to be taken as the reflexive pronoun with “ἐεισαμένη”. For the form of the sentence cp. Od 13. 429 “ὣς ἄρα μιν φαμένη ῥάβδῳ ἐπεμάσσατ᾽ Ἀθήνη”, and for the construction, Od.11. 241τῷ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐεισάμενος”, ‘to whom having likened himself,’ which shows that μιν is not needed as a reflexive.

[25] γείνατο. This form of expression is equivalent to “τί νυ ὧδε μεθήμων πέφυκας”; Trans. ‘Why hath thy mother such a lazy daughter in thee?’ The words serve to point a contrast between the thrifty housewifery of the queen and the idleness of the princess. Cp. Il.13. 777ἐπεὶ οὐδ᾽ ἐμὲ πάμπαν ἀνάλκιδα γείνατο μήτηρ”, Horace, Od.3. 10. 11‘non te Penelopen difficilem procis

Tyrrhenus genuit parens.’

[26] Join κεῖται ἀκηδέα. The epithet σιγαλόεντα is a fixed one (cp. Schol. Venet. on Il.8. 551οὐκ ἐπὶ τῆς τότε ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τῆς φύσει”), and is so inseparable from its noun that no contradiction is felt by the combination of “ἀκηδέα” with it: cp. also inf. 74 “ἐσθῆτα φαεινήν”. By a similar acceptance of the fixed epithet, the comrades of Odysseus, who have just ruined their master by their selfishness, are still called “ἐρίηρες”, Od.12. 397; and the horses of Antilochus, though called “ὠκύποδες Il.23. 304, are specified, ib. 310, as “βάρδιστοι θείειν”.

[27] σοὶ δὲ γάμος, ‘and thy wedding is near, at which (so “ἵνα Od.4. 821) thou thyself must don fine clothes, and give other garments (τὰ δέ the antithesis to καλὰ μέν, as if “καλὰ δέ” had been written; compare “τοὺς δέ Od.5. 48) to those who are going to take thee to their home.’ The subjunct. with “κε” expresses expectation.

[28] ἄγωνται may refer generally to the family into which the bride marries, or more likely, may have a special application to the torchlight procession ( Il.18. 492 foll.; Hesiod , Hesiod Scut.273) in which the bride was conducted to her new home by the bridegroom and his friends. To the splendour of such a pageant the bride could herself contribute by giving handsome dresses to those who took part in it.

[29] ἐκ τούτων, i. e. from such sumptuous style.

ἀναβαίνει, ‘good report spreads among men.’ This construction with “ἀναβαίνειν” finds no exact parallel, though Eustath. says well, “ἀναβαίνει ὁμοιότητά τινα ἔχει πρὸς τὸ ἀναδέδρομε”. It does not seem necessary, with Nitzsch, to write “ἄνα βαίνει”. The φάτις may be regarded as rising, as it were stage by stage, from those immediately concerned in the procession to what we should call ‘the public.’

[32] συνέριθος, ‘fellow-worker.’ On this the Schol. says, by way of suggesting an etymology, “κυρίως συνεργοῦσα εἰς τὰ ἔρια”. The word is more probably to be referred to the root “ερ” or “αρ”, which appears in “ἄρ-ω, ἀρ-τύω”.

[33] ἐντύνεαι. The “υ” in this aorist subjunctive is long, so that “εαι” (as in “ἔσσεαι” ibid.) must be scanned as one syllable.

[35] ὅθι τοι. See crit. note. If we read ἐσσί and αὐτή we must render ‘to whom thou also thyself belongest by birth.’ But the better reading is ἐστί and αὐτῇ ‘where thou hast thine own family-ties.’ In this translation “ὅθι . . αὐτῇ” is epexegetical of “ἀριστῆες”, according to the interpretation of the Schol. H. P. T. “ὅπου ἐν τοῖς ἀρίστοις καί σοι αὐτῇ τὸ γένος”. With “τοι αὐτῇ” compare “τοι . . αὐτῷ Od.11. 134, “τοι . . αὐτῇ Il.6. 272.But the position of the words makes it more likely that “ὅθι” takes up “δῆμον”, not “ἀριστῆες”, so that Athena is reminding Nausicaa that she is being wooed by the noblest native suitors.

[36] ἠῶθι πρό. See on Od. 5.469.

[37] ἄμαξα, in Attic Greek “ἅμαξα”, is a four-wheeled cart as distinct from the two-wheeled “ἅρμα”. The etymology is supposed to be “ἅμα” and “ἄγω”, or, according to Grashof, “ἀμφι-ἄξων”, i. e. with two axles.

[40] πλυνοί. In Il.22. 153 such “πλυνοί” or washing-tanks are described as “καλοὶ λαΐνεοι”. See inf. 86-91.

[42] “Οὔλυμπόνδ᾽, ὅθι φασί”. Cp. Il.2. 783εἰν Ἀρίμοις ὅθι φασὶ Τυφωέος ἔμμεναι εὐνάς”, Il.24. 615ἐν Σιπύλῳ ὅθι φασὶ θεάων ἔμμεναι εὐνάς”. No doubt the words “ὅθι φασί” sound strange in the present passage, which one might suppose to be the enunciation of a universal belief, and not the quoting of a local tradition. The Schol. Q. E. maintains that “ὅθι φασί” is appropriate here if “Ὄλυμπος” be taken as the mountain of that name, but unsuitable if it be regarded as equivalent to “οὐρανός”. Eustath. seems to interpret the words just the other way, and to consider that if “οὐρανός” be intended here, “τότε τὸ φασὶν οὐ κατ᾽ ἐνδοιασμὸν κείσεται ἀλλὰ κατὰ κοινὴν δόξαν”. But many modern editors see in the words “ὅθι φασί” a distinct indication of the later introduction of the whole passage, as Köchly, Diss. 1. p. 17 ‘pulchros illos versus non ab initio hic positos fuisse non solum ex isto prorsus inaudito “ὅθι φασί”, quod toto caelo ab omni nostri carminis indole distat; sed etiam inde concludi potest quod emblema splendidissimum vix loco minus commodo inseri poterat.’ But this seems needlessly strong; the verses are possibly suspicious, because the context requires no special allusion to Olympus; but the actual description is not irreconcileable with the general Homeric picture of Olympus. Olympus may be called an idealised mountain on which Zeus and the gods of heaven have their home, and on the highest peak of which is the palace of the great king. No doubt every soaring height presented itself to an imaginative mind as a natural throne for the powers of heaven. But Olympus was peculiarly regarded by the Greeks as their Holy Hill, like the mountain Meru of the Indians, or Elburz of the Persians. The epithets which Homer applies to Olympus are “μακρόςHom. Od.10. 307; Hom. Il.5. 398, “αἰπύςHom. Il.5. 367, “νιφόειςHom. Il.18. 616, “ἀγάννιφοςHom. Il.1. 420, “μέγαςHom. Il.1. 530, “πολύπτυχοςHom. Il.8. 411, “πολυδειράςHom. Il.5. 754, and “αἰγλήειςHom. Il.1. 532; Hom. Od.20. 103.Thus Olympus is placed before us as a lofty mountain with several peaks and deep valleys; and on some one of its heights the gods dwell, “Ὄλυμπος ἵν᾽ ἀθανάτων ἕδος ἐστίHom. Il.5. 360.But Olympus and all its scene soon passes into legendary ground; its height is such that Hephaestus, when thrown from it, is a whole day reaching the level of the earth, Hom. Il.1. 590 foll.; and it is coupled with “οὐρανός”, as being under the special charge of the “Ὧραι”, to raise or drop the cloud-curtains that hang before its celestial palaces. Aristarchus decides that Homer always means by Olympus the mountain of that name; a mountain never actually identified with Heaven, yet rising far into it.

But the picture of Olympus as one of the mountains of Greece takes away all meaning from the boast of Zeus—that he could fasten a cord to the summit of Olympus, and draw up thereto earth and gods and all, Il.8. 18 foll. It is a further question how far the present passage can be reconciled with the usual Homeric conception of Olympus. Is the phrase “αἴθρη ἀνέφελος” compatible with the epithets “νιφόεις” and “ἀγάννιφος” quoted above? Is the conception of Olympus in the Odyssey more supramundane than in the Iliad? To these questions it may be answered, that there is no difficulty in supposing that “νέφη” and “αἴθρη” are both appropriate. The mountain has its clouds, which make a sort of boundary between the mundane and celestial regions, while the topmost summit stands up clear in the blue sky, above the storms, in serene calm, like the land of the Hyperboreans, ‘at the back of the North Wind.’ So Eustath. “τοιοῦτος μὲν Ὄλυμπος τάγε ἄνω, τὰ γὰρ κάτω καὶ μετὰ τὰ νέφη ἀγάννιφός που λέγεται”.

A similar picture is given by Lucan, 2. 271 ‘nubes excedit Olympus

lege deum: minimas rerum discordia turbat;
pacem summa tenent.’ Cp. Lucr.3. 18 seq. ‘apparet Divum numen sedesque quietae,
quas neque concutiunt venti, neque nubila nimbis
aspergunt, neque nix acri concreta pruina
cana cadens violat, semperque innubilus aether
integit, et large diffuso lumine ridet.’ Also Seneca de IraLucr., 3. 6‘pars superior mundi et ordinatior ac propinqua sideribus nec in nubem cogitur, nec in tempestatem impellitur, nec versatur in turbinem.’ Tennyson imitates the passage in his ‘Morte d'Arthur,’ describing the ‘island valley of Avilion;’ compare also Coleridge's ‘Hymn in the Vale of Chamouni.’
θεῶν ἕδος. Compare Pind. Nem.6. 5 δὲ χάλκεος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶ ἕδος μένει οὐρανός”.

[45] πέπταται, ‘is outspread;’ so “πέπτατο αὐγή Il.17. 371.The word is used also simply of clothes laid out as a covering, Il.5. 195.Cp. Joel 2. 2 ‘the morning spread upon the mountains.’

ἀνέφελος is the better reading, not “ἀννέφελος”. A short final vowel preceding the word “νέφος” is frequently lengthened in Homer, as “δε? νεφέεσσι Od.5. 293; 9. 68, “ποτι? νέφεα Od.8. 374, “δια? νεφέων Il.22. 309.Among words beginning with “ν” a fair proportion can be shown to have begun with “σν” (as “νευρή, νιφάς, νέω, νύμφη”). And it has been held that “νέφος” originally began with a double consonant, as shown by “δνόφος, κνέφας”, but the form nubes in Latin is against this idea. Eustath. quotes as similar metrical lengthenings “α?κάματος” and “α?θάνατος”. See generally Monro, H. G. § 371.

ἐπιδέδρομεν, ‘floats over it;’ used conversely of “ἀχλύς Od.20. 357.

With αἴγλη compare “αἰγλήεντος Ὀλύμπου Il.1. 532.

[47] διεπέφραδε (“διαφράζω”), aor. redupl.; cp. Od.17. 590.In Od.10. 549ἐπέφραδε” stands alone without an object; but in Il.20. 340 we find “διεπέφραδε πάντα”.

[49] ἀπεθαύμασε, ‘was lost in wonder at.’ Cp. Hdt.1. 30ἀποθωμάσας τὸ λεχθέν”. For the use of “ἀπό” in composition in an intensive sense compare “ἀπειπεῖνHom. Od.16. 340, “ἀπαρέσσασθαιHom. Il.19. 183, “ἀπομηνίειν” ib. 62, and, perhaps, “ἀπομνύναιHom. Od.2. 377.So we have de used in Latin, as in ‘demirari,’ ‘decantare,’ ‘detonare,’ ‘desaevire.’

[53] ἠλάκατα, ‘the yarn’ ( Od.17. 97) spun off from the “ἠλακάτη” or distaff. No form of the word in the singular is found. But for the change in meaning we may compare “μῆρος” and “μηρία”, aedes sing. and plur. In Od.4. 135 the colour of the wool that Helen is spinning is “ἰοδνεφές”. The common interpretation of ἁλιπόρφυρα is “ἁλουργὰ, τουτέστιν ἐκ θαλασσίας πορφύρας”, as Hesych. and others. Perhaps there is an allusion intended to the famous Phoenician purple dye from the murex. The Schol. Q. on Od. 13.108 and Eustath. interpret the word as “ἐοικότα τῇ θαλάσσῃ πορφυριζούσῃ”, a rendering which is certainly supported by the form of the compound; “ἁλί” being a true locative case. Ebeling, Hom. Lex., quotes as one interpretation ‘wie Purpur in der Salzfluth.’ Compare “ἁλίπλοος, ἁλιμυρήεις”.

[54] ξύμβλητο, she ‘met’ him, by hastening down the “μέγαρον” and catching him at the door.

With μετὰ βασιλῆας ἐς βουλήν cp. Il.1. 423ἐς Ὠκεανὸν μετ᾽ ἀμύμονας Αἰθιοπῆας”.

[57] οὐκ ἂν δή. A tentative, beseeching, form of question; ‘Could you not get me ready?’ Hentze (Philolog. 29. 140) quotes for similar questions introduced by the optative with “ἄν” in a negative sentence, Il.3. 52; 5. 32, 456; 10. 204; 24. 263; Od.7. 22; 22.132.

ἀπήνη is a cart for carrying a load, like “ἄμαξα”, with four wheels, generally drawn by mules or oxen. On “ἀπήνη” see Lobeck, Pathol. 94 ‘synonyma sunt plurima: “πήνα” Gallicumque Hes. “benna.” “γάπος: ὄχημα Τυῤῥηνοί” Hesych. “καπάνη” (media longa), “ἀμάνη, ἄμαξα, ἄγαννα”, nec sciri potest unane horum omnium stirps fuerit, an specie similis, re diversa.’

[59] ῥερυπωμένα. An unusual form for the commoner method of reduplication “ἐρρυπωμένα”. Schol. P. Q. quotes “ῥεραπισμένῳ νώτῳ” from Anacreon; and Eustath. says that Homer preferred the form because of its correctness, “τῆς καλλιφωνίας τὴν κανονικὴν ὀρθότητα προέκρινε”. But it is really much more a question of metre.

[60] “σοὶ . . ἔοικε . . ἐόντα βουλεύειν”. For this change of construction cp. Od.16. 465, and Od.10. 563. 565.The MSS. vary between “ἐόντα, ἔχοντα” and “ἐόντι, ἔχοντι”. Nauck declares for the latter. Classen discusses this construction thoroughly in his Beobacht. über dem Hom. Sprach. pp. 140 foll.

[61] βουλὰς βουλεύειν. In such constructions the accusative is closely connected with the verb, but not with that kind of dependence in which the action or the verb passes over to the object; but rather the accusative represents the particular sphere in which the action expressed by the verb exerts itself. This construction properly belongs to intransitive verbs, though an analogous usage is found with verbs transitive. Generally speaking the use is peculiar to poetry, as we may see by comparing such an expression as “βίον ζῆν” with “βίον ἄγειν”; or, in English, ‘they have been asleep’ with such a phrase as ‘they have slept their sleep.’ It is a method of avoiding in poetry the constant employment of such common verbs as ‘to make,’ ‘to do,’ ‘to perform.’ But an additional emphasis is also given by the use of this cognate accusative, as may be seen from such expressions as ‘dicta dicere,’ or, Plaut. Aul.4. 1. 6, ‘servitutem servire.’

The most complete form of this cognate accusative is found when the verb and the noun are of identical stems. This is called by the grammarians “σχῆμα ἐτυμολογικόν”. And from the identity of stem, and therefore close similarity in sound, we find “τὸ τοιοῦτον σχῆμα παρονομασία καλεῖται” Schol. D. on Il.2. 121.As instances may be quoted, “ἀγορὰς ἀγορεύειν Il.2. 788, “ἱδρῶ ἱδροῦν Il.4. 27, “μάχην μάχεσθαι Il.12. 175; 15. 414, 673; 18. 533 [?]; Od.9. 54[?], “νείκεα νεικεῖν Il.20. 251, “πόλεμον πολεμίζειν Il.2. 121, “ἀπειλὰς ἀπειλεῖν Il.13. 219, “βουλὰς βουλεύειν” here and Il.10. 147, “δαῖτα δαινύναι Od.3. 67, “ἔπος εἰπεῖν Il.1. 108; Od.8. 397(this phrase is never used in the Iliad, unless “ἔπος” have the addition of a pronominal or adjectival qualification, as Il.1. 108; 3.204; 7. 375, 394; 15. 206; 20. 250; 24. 744; but in the Odyssey it is found without such an addition, as Od.8. 397; 16.469; 19. 98), “μῦθον μυθεῖσθαι Od.3. 140, “νόον νοεῖν Il.9. 104.The same construction is also found with verbs more distinctly transitive, as “αἰχμὰς αἰχμάσσειν Il.4. 324, “κτέρεα κτερεΐζειν Od.1. 291, compared with “κτερεΐζειν ἑταῖρον Il.23. 646, “ἔργα ἐργάζεσθαι Od.20. 72, “τέμενος τάμνειν Il.6. 194, “φυτεύειν φυτόν Od.9. 108, “χοὴν χεῖσθαι Od.10. 518.As a further stage we find instead of the accusative identical in stem with the verb, an accusative of the same meaning or of one closely allied, as “ἀπολωλέναι μόρον Od.1. 166, “ὄλλυσθαι οἶτον Il.8. 34, “ὀιζύειν κακά Il.14. 89, “μογεῖν ἄλγεα Od.21. 207, “εὕδειν ὕπνον Od.8. 445, or “ἀωτεῖν ὕπνον Od.10. 548, “ὅρκον ὀμνύναι Od.5. 178, “ζώειν βίον” (but with the addition “ἀγαθόν”) Od.15. 491, “ὑποστῆναι ὑπόσχεσιν Il.2. 286, “εἰλαπίνην δαίνυσθαι Il.23. 201(cp. “δαινύναι τάφον Od.3. 309, “γάμον Od.4. 3), “ὁδὸν ἐλθέμεναι Il.1. 151; Od.3. 316, “ὁδὸν οἴχεσθαι Od.3. 693.Cp. “ἀγγελίην ἐλθεῖν Il.11. 140, etc.

Analogous to this is the use of the accusative with a verb (though it has no relation to the meaning of the verb), as “πῦρ δεδορκώς Od.19. 446, “ὄσσεσθαι ὄλεθρον Od.2. 152, “πνεῖν μένος Od.22. 203, etc., “ἕλκος βάλλειν Il.5. 795, “οὐλὴν ἐλαύνειν Od.24. 332, “ὅρκια τάμνειν Od.24. 483, “ὀμνύναι ὕδωρ Il.14. 271.Cp. “πέπληγον χορόν Od.8. 264.See on the whole question La Roche, Hom. Stud. § 19 foll.

[65] μέμηλεν. On Nausicaa, the only daughter of the house, devolved all the weight of this part of the household care, as she says in a tone of sportive seriousness.

[66] γάμον. Preparation for her marriage was the reason urged upon her by Athena, in the dream. θαλερός is used as an epithet of youths in the flower of their age, and may easily be transferred to “γάμος”, ‘marriage in her maiden-prime;’ or it may be a fixed epithet of “γάμος” in the sense of ‘fruitful;’ which would further explain the feeling of “αἰδώς” which kept her silent upon the subject.

[69] ἔρχευ, ‘away then!’

[70] ὑπερτερίῃ. The Scholl. interpret this of a box for baggage. In this sense it may be compared with “πείρινθα”, which is similarly affixed to an “ἄμαξα”, Od.15. 131; Il.24. 267.Others take it as meaning a movable ‘hood’ or ‘awning’ to protect the passengers from the sun or rain. The word itself, meaning ‘upper - works’ (“ὑπέρτερος”), gives no clue; but perhaps the participle ἀραρυῖαν suggests something forming a part, though a movable part, of the cart, and so makes the signification ‘awning’ somewhat more likely.

[73] ὕπαγονὑπ᾽ ἀπήνῃ. This expression comes from the idea of the horses or mules being brought up, and put with their necks under the yoke. So “ζεῦξαι ὑπ᾽ ὄχεσφι Il.23. 130, “ὑπ᾽ ἀμάξῃσιν Il.24. 782.Cp. also “ζεύξαθ᾽ ὑφ᾽ ἅρματ᾽ ἄγοντες Od.3. 476.

[80] “χυτλώσαιτο. χύτλον”, related to “χυτός” as “φύτλη” to “φυτόν”, is properly anything ‘poured.’ Its technical sense is a mixture of oil and water called “ὑδρέλαιον” Dioscor. 2. 10, etc., used by bathers. χυτλοῦσθαι thus comprehends both processes of bathing and anointing, described inf. 96 foll. The ancients used alkali (“κονία”) only in place of soap; so that the addition of oil to the water would naturally make a true soap in the process of washing.

[83] ἄμοτον. The old etymology, which Aristarchus supports, is from “” privative and “μοτόν”, ‘lint;’ so that the word would mean ‘with unstaunched flow.’ Others refer it to root “μα”, as in “με-μα-ώς”, or compound it of “” privative and root “με”, as in “μέ-τρον”. The pace however was only constant, not rapid, for the maids followed on foot: cp. “ὅπως ἅμ᾽ ἑποίατο πεζοί” inf. 319. Translate, ‘they stepped straight on without flagging.’

[86] ἐπηετανοί, ‘constantly supplied.’ See on Od. 4.89. The πλυνοί seem to have been tanks dug at the side of the river, having a free communication therewith above and below, so that the water was continually passing in and out of them. The full force of the prepositions in ὑπεκπρορέει seems to be that the water wells up from beneath (“ὑπό”), passes on (“πρό”), and flows out again (“ἐκ”). So in “ὑπεκπροέλυσαν” (inf. 88) they removed the mules from under the yoke, detached them from the cart, and turned them off to graze. Cp. “ὑπεκπροθέειν Il.9. 506, “ὑπεκπροφυγεῖν Od.12. 113.

[87] μάλακαθῆραι, ‘so as to clean clothes though very dirty.’ This clause forms a sort of epexegesis to καλόν and πολύ, ‘water plentiful and clear.’

[90] ἄγρωστις is often rendered ‘clover,’ which the epithet “μελιηδής” seems to suit. Others regard it as ‘couch grass’ (Triticum repens), which has a peculiarly sweet root: others as ‘dog-tooth grass’ (Cynodon dactylon), which forms the principal pasturage of India, under the name Doorba.

[91] μέλαν. See on Od. 4.359.

ἐσφόρεον ὕδωρ, ‘carried them into the water.’ Cp. “εἴρερον εἰσανάγουσι Od.8. 529, “σπέος εἰσερύσαντες Od.12. 317, “ἐπαληθεὶς Αἰγυπτίους Od.4. 83.

[94] ἧχι μάλιστα, ‘just where.’ Cp. Il.13. 789ἔνθα μάλιστα μάχη καὶ φύλοπις ἦεν”,

ἔνθα δίστομοι
μάλιστα συμβάλλουσιν ἐμπόρων ὁδοί

.

[95] ἀποπλύνεσκε. The variant “ἀποπτύεσκε”, and the interpretation of Schol. V. “ἀπέρριπτε”, would make the meaning of the verse, ‘just where the sea washed up the line of shingle on the shore.’ But Nitzsch, with greater probability, joins ποτὶ χέρσον directly with θάλασσα, ‘where the sea beating on the shore scoured the pebbles clean.’ Compare “ῥόχθει μέγα κῦμα ποτὶ ξερόν Od.5. 402.This would represent almost a fixed point of the beach, for the rise and fall of the tide in the Mediterranean is very slight; and of course the poet transfers this phenomenon to his Phaeacian coast.

[96] λίπ᾽ ἐλαίῳ. See on Od. 3.466.

[98] μένον τερσήμεναι (infinitive from 2nd aorist “ἐτέρσην”, from “τέρσομαι”), ‘waited for the clothes to dry.’ Com pare “μένον δ᾽ ἐπὶ ἕσπερον ἐλθεῖν Od.1. 422.

[100] ταὶ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἔπαιζον. See critical note.

[101] μολπῆς. The Schol. interprets “τῆς παιδιᾶς” (‘the game’). See on Od. 1.152. But there is no reason to doubt that it was accompanied with a measured chant and a dance movement, to which the throwing and catching of the ball kept time. So in Od.8. 371 foll. we have ball-play combined with “ὀρχηθμός”. Cp. Athen. 1. 25 “ὀρχήσεις δ᾽ εἰσὶ παρ᾽ Ὁμήρῳ, αἱ μέν τινες τῶν κυβιστητήρων, αἱ δὲ διὰ τῆς σφαίρας, ἧς τὴν εὕρεσιν Ἀγαλλὶς Κερκυραία γραμματικὴ Ναυσικάᾳ ἀνατίθησιν ὡς πολίτιδι χαριζομένη”.

[102] οἵη δ᾽ Ἄρτεμις. This passage is imitated by Virgil in his description of Dido, Aen.1. 502 foll., ‘qualis in Eurotae ripis,’ etc., which passage is thus criticised by Valerius Probus (quoted by Aul. Gell. Noct. Att. 9. 9), “nihil quicquam tam improspere Vergilium ex Homero vertisse quam versus hos amoenissimos, quos de Nausicaa Homerus fecit. Primum omnium id visum esse dicebant Probo, quod apud Homerum quidem virgo Nausicaa, ludibunda inter familiares puellas in locis solis, recte atque commode confertur cum Diana venante in iugis montium inter agrestes deas: nequaquam autem conveniens Vergilium fecisse, quoniam Dido in media urbe ingrediens inter Tyrios principes, cultu atque incessu serio, “instans operi,” sicut ipse ait, “regnisque futuris,” nihil eius similitudinis capere possit, quae lusibus atque venatibus Dianae congruat. Tum postea quod Homerus studia atque oblectamenta in venando Dianae honeste aperteque dicit; Vergilius autem cum de venatu deae nihil dixisset pharetram tantum facit eam ferre in humero, tanquam sit onus et sarcina . . praeter ista omnia florem ipsum totius loci Vergilium videri omisisse, quod hunc Homeri versum exigue secutus sit, “ῥεῖα δ᾽ ἀριγνώτη πέλεται: καλαὶ δέ τε πᾶσαι”, quando nulla maior cumulatiorque pulcritudinis laus dici potuerit quam quod una inter omnes pulcras excelleret, una facile et ex omnibus nosceretur.’

κατ᾽ οὔρεος. See critical note. We may suppose that Artemis descends from some peak, and then travels along the ridges of the hills, “ κατὰ Τηΰγετον κ.τ.λ.” Taygetus (the ‘huge’ mountain, from “ταΰς”, see on Od. 4.11) was also called Pentadactylus, from its five peaks. It is a mountain range in the western portion of Lacedaemon, running from north to south, and ending in the promontory of Taenarus, after a course of nearly seventy miles. The sides of Taygetus were covered with pine forest, and the region round the principal summit Taletum was called Theras, ‘the hunting-grounds,’ Paus. 3. 20. §§ 4, 5. Erymanthus is a lofty range between Arcadia, Achaia, and Elis. As Erymanthus was the fabled haunt of the great Erymanthian boar slain by Heracles, κάπροι has a peculiar appropriateness here.

ἰοχέαιρα, not from “ἰός” and “χαίρω”, but originally “ἰοχέϝαιρα”, from “χέω”. See Schol. on Il.16. 465, comparing “νείαιρα”, from “νέος”. For the word “χέω” used of shooting cp. “βέλεα χέοντο Il.15. 590, “ἐκχεύατ᾽ ὀιστούς Od.22. 3.

[106] ἀγρονόμοι. The paroxytone accent is right here, as “νέμειν” and “νέμεσθαι” are used actively in the sense of ‘haunting.’ Schol. H. P. Q. notices that others accented the word proparoxytone; and Schol. V. E. proposes “ἄγραν νέμουσαι” as a possible interpretation. In Soph. O. T.1103 we find “ἀγρόνομοι πλάκες”. Cp. Il.20. 8νυμφάων . . αἵ τ᾽ ἄλσεα καλὰ νέμονται”.

παίζουσι seems used here with the notion of ‘hunting,’ which we technically call ‘sport;’ so Soph. El.566πατήρ ποθ᾽ οὑμὸς, ὡς ἐγὼ κλύω, θεᾶς

παίζων κατ᾽ ἄλσος ἐξεκίνησεν ποδοῖν
στικτὸν κεραστὴν ἔλαφον”.

[107] ὑπὲρἔχει. The simplest construction is not, as usually given, “ὑπερέχει πασάων”, ‘overtops all by her head;’ but ‘lifts her head above all,’ as of the horse in Il.6. 509ὑψοῦ δὲ κάρη ἔχει”. But compare on the other hand Il.3. 210στάντων μὲν Μενέλαος ὑπείρεχεν εὐρέας ὤμους” with ib. 227 “ἔξοχος Ἀργείων κεφαλήν τε καὶ εὐρέας ὤμους”, which rather supports the meaning, ‘overtops them by head and shoulders.’

[110] δὴ ἄῤ (unusual hiatus) ἔμελλε. This means ‘she now thought of packing up and going home;’ the actual preparations, described by “ζεύξασα καὶ πτύξασα”, are not begun till inf. 252. The two participles here give a nearer definition of “νέεσθαι”.

[114] οἱ ἡγήσαιτο, ‘who should be guide for him.’ Cp. Od.7. 22; 15.82.

[115] ἔπειτα, ‘so then;’ introducing the first stage in the carrying out of Athena's intention. On this passage Eustathius speculates as to what particular sort of ball-play this might be, and suggests that it is “ λεγομένη ἐφετίνδα”, in which the thrower made a show of tossing the ball to one of the players, and then suddenly flung it to another: this form of the game was also called “φεννίς” (“φενακίζειν”). He further tells us that the Lacedaemonians excelled all other people in ball-play; that Alexander the Great was the most expert of all kings; and that of private individuals the most skilful was Sophocles the tragedian, who wrote a satyric drama called “Πλύντριαι”, or ‘washerwomen,’ in which he himself took the part of Nausicaa.

[116] ἅμαρτε, sc. Nausicaa, who is also the subject to ἔμβαλε.

[117] ἐπὶ μακρὸν ἄυσαν. Join “ἐπὶ . . ἄυσαν”, ‘they cried aloud thereat,’ as “ἐπὶ δ᾽ αὐτὸς ἄυσε Il.15. 321, “ἐπὶ δὲ πλῆμναι μέγ᾽ ἀύτευνEur. Herc.309.

[119] τέων αὖτε. Cp. Ebeling, Hom. Lex. s. v., “αὖτε interrogantis est cum quadam indignatione atque minantis vel graviter ferentis quod quidem iterum fiat.” See Il.1. 202; 20.16; 21.394; Od.10. 281; 11.93; 20.33. Perhaps our impatient use of ‘now!’ is near enough for translation.

[121] θεουδής, ‘god-fearing.’ Before Buttm. “θεουδής” was generally regarded as another form of “θεοειδής”. It should, however, be classed under those nouns with stems in “-εες” which are subject to Hyphaeresis, or dropping a vowel before another vowel, as “κλέα” for “κλέε-α”. So “θεουδής, θεουδέα” (for “θεοδϝής”). Monro, H. G. § 105. 4. Düntzer regards it as equivalent to “θεοαδής”, from root “ἁδ, σϝαδ”, in the sense of ‘god-pleasing;’ so also Schol. P. νόος θεουδής here is a sort of epexegesis of “φιλόξεινοι”, men who “ἔδεισαν μῆνιν Ζηνὸς ξεινίου”. Cp. Il.13. 625.

[122] ὥς τε to be joined with κουράων, ‘as it were the voice of girls.’ Cp. Od.4. 45ὥς τε γὰρ ἠελίου αἴγλη πέλεν ἠὲ σελήνης”.

κουράων is further defined by the addition of νυμφάων, cp. Od.4. 63ἀνδρῶν . . διοτρεφέων βασιλήων”. The voice of nymphs may further have suggested to him the presence of mortals, as sacrifices and altars to the nymphs are mentioned in Od.13. 350; 17.210. Homer speaks of nymphs of fountains and streams, “νηίδες Il.6. 22; nymphs of mountains, “ὀρεστιάδες Il.6. 420, and “ἀγρονόμοι”, as sup. 105. They are represented as daughters of Zeus in Il.6. 420, having their origin from springs, groves, and rivers, Od.13. 350, and worshipped in sacred grottos, Od.14. 435.The two lines, 123-4, though accepted without objection by the Scholl., are suspected or rejected by many modern editors. Nitzsch remarks that 124 is identical with Il.20. 9 and h. Hom. Ven. 99; and that the supposition that the cry came from nymphs would really give very little hint about the place being inhabited by mortals. Bothe objects to the combination “κουράων νυμφάων”, and proposes to read “ νυμφέων”. The Schol. supposes it was the loneliness of the place that suggested the presence of nymphs, and the alternative possibility of the presence of mortals is given in “ νύ που”, which he writes with the disjunctive “”.

[126] πειρήσομαι may be the subjunctive of the aorist, as being parallel to ἴδωμαι, or, more likely, indic. future of mere statement of what is going to happen, followed by the mood that expresses intention. See Od.12. 383.For the converse arrangement see Od.2. 222.

[127] θάμνων ὑπεδύσετο. So with genitive, implying the notion of escape, “κακῶν ὑποδύσεαι Od.20. 53.

[128] πτόρθονφύλλων, a somewhat loose genitive resembling the material genitive, as “τάπης ἐρίοιο Od.4. 124, “ἄλσος αἰγείρων” inf. 291; or the genitive of contents, like “οἴνου πίθοι Od.2. 340, “οἴνου ἀσκός Od.5. 265.

[129] ὡς ῥύσαιτο, ‘that girt about his body it might cover his nakedness.’

[130] ἀλκί. This metaplastic form of the dative from “ἀλκή” occurs four times in the Iliad, but only here in the Odyssey.

[131] With ὑόμενος καὶ ἀήμενος Nitzsch compares “νιφόμενοςXen. Hellen. 2. 4. 3. So in Ach.1075τηρεῖν νιφόμενον τὰς ἐσβολάς”. For the passive of “ἄημι” cp. “ἄητο Il.21. 386.

ὄσσε is used here as a neuter plural with a singular verb, as in Il.12. 466; 23.477. It is found with a plural verb in Il.13. 617; 16.792; 17.695; 19. 17, etc.: with a dual verb Il.15. 608; 17.679. In h. Hom. ad Sol. 9, the form “ὄσσοις” for the dative occurs, as in Hesiod , Hesiod Scut.145, etc. There is a similar confusion between plural and dual in the adjectives found with “ὄσσε”, in Il.13. 435 we find “θέλξας ὄσσε φαεινά”, in Il.14. 236ὄσσε φαεινώ”, etc. The grammarians supposed a nominative “ ὄσσος” or “τὸ ὄσσος”. The form ὄσσε is probably “ὀκjε”, Skt. akSi.

[132] “βουσὶ μετέρχεται . . ἠὲ μετ᾽ . . ἐλάφους”. The change from dative to accusative is strictly accurate. He pursues the flying deer, while his ravages in the farmyard are confined within a narrower circle and imply no such movement.

[133] κέλεται δέ, ‘and his belly bids him go even into the close-shut fold to make an attack on the sheep.’ Compare ‘suadet enim vesana fames’ Virg. Aen.9. 340.

[135] ἔμελλε, ‘was fain.’ The main point of comparison in the simile between the lion and Odysseus, is that both are pushed by hunger into an act of unusual boldness; “χρειὼ γὰρ ἵκανε”.

[138] τρέσσαν, ‘fled scared.’ According to Aristarchus “τρεῖν” always has the notion of ‘fleeing;’ but the meaning is certainly not strongly brought out in every passage, as “ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοὶ τρεῖτ᾽ ἄσπετον Il.17. 332, “μὴ λίην τρέε Il.21. 288.The general force is like that of Lat. ‘trepidare.’ Pausanias (1. 22) tells us that this scene was depicted in the Propylaea at Athens, by Polygnotus.

ἠιόνας. The scene is laid near the mouth of a river, so that there is no difficulty here in translating ‘jutting spits,’ probably of low sandy beach, common in such places. See on Od. 5.441.

[140] Join ἐκ with εἵλετο.

[141] σχομένη, ‘halting.’ Lit. ‘having checked herself [from flight].’ So Eustath. “ἐπισχοῦσα ἑαυτὴν τῆς φυγῆς”. Cp. “φρεσὶ δ᾽ ἔσχετο Od.17. 238, “σχέσθαι βίης Od.4. 422.This is far simpler than to supply such a noun as “χεῖρας” or “κρήδεμνον”, as in Od.1. 334ἄντα παρειάων σχομένη λιπαρὰ κρήδεμνα”.

[143] αὔτως, ‘as he was;’ further defined by “ἀποσταδά”.

[148] κερδαλέον. Through the sense of ‘gain-getting,’ the derivatives of “κέρδος” take almost any colouring, from the wise counsel of a goddess, “κερδοσύνῃ ἡγήσατ᾽ Ἀθήνη Il.22. 247, to the selfishness of Agamemnon, who is called “κερδαλεόφρων Il.1. 149; or the craftiness of Sisyphus, “ὃς κέρδιστος γένετ᾽ ἀνδρῶν Il.6. 153.Compare also the titles “κερδαλέη” and “κερδώ” for the fox, in Pindar and Archilochus.

[149] ἄνασσα. This form of address is only elsewhere used in Homer of Demeter, Il.14. 326, and Athena, Od.3. 380.There is thus a special compliment implied in the application of it to a woman.

Compare with the sentiment Virg. Aen.1. 331‘quam te memorem, virgo? namque haud tibi vultus

mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat; o dea certe,
an Phoebi soror, an nympharum sanguinis una?’ Also Ovid, Ov. Met.4. 312‘qui te genuere beati,
et frater felix, et fortunata profecto
si qua tibi soror est, et quae dedit ubera nutrix.’

[156] ἐυφροσύνῃσιν, cp. “ἀεσιφροσύνῃσιν Od.15. 470, and for other feminine plurals to express an abstract idea cp. “τεκτοσυνάων Od.5. 250, “ποδωκείῃσιν Il.2. 792, “πολυκερδείῃσιν Od.24. 167.Similarly, “ἀτασθαλίαι, ὑπεροπλίαι, ἱπποσύναι”, etc.

[157] λευσσόντων. For this use of the genitive of the participle, notwithstanding the dative case of the pronoun “σφισι”, cp. Od.9. 256ἡμῖν δὲ κατεκλάσθη φίλον ἦτορ

δεισάντων”, ib. 458 “τῷ κέ οἱ ἐγκέφαλός γε . . θεινομένου ῥαίοιτο”, also Od.14. 527; 17.231; 22.17; Il.14. 25; 16.531. In each of the two lines quoted above it is possible to suppose the genitive suggested by “ἦτορ” or “ἐγκέφαλος”, but the connection is loose; and the genitive is evidently tending towards its ‘absolute’ use; which it actually reaches in such phrases as “καί κεν τοῦτ᾽ ἐθέλοιμι Διός γε διδόντος ἀρέσθαι Od.1. 390.Classen (Hom. Sprach. p. 174 foll.) calls this construction ‘das letzte Stadium vor dem volligen Durchbruch des Genetiv zur Unabhängigkeit.’ See more on Od. 4.646.
θάλοςεἰσοιχνεῦσαν. For the ‘constructio ad sensum,’ the participle agreeing with the gender implied in “θάλος”, cp. Il.22. 87φίλον θάλος, ὃν τέκεν αὐτή”, Od.11. 90ἦλθεν ἐπὶ ψυχὴ Θηβαίου Τειρεσίαο

χρύσεον σκῆπτρον ἔχων”, Il.11. 690ἐλθὼν ἐκάκωσε βίη Ἡρακληείη”. Also Eur. Bacch.130τῆς σῆς τόδ᾽ ἔρνος, τάλαινα, νηδύος
αἴσχιστα καὶ κάκιστα κατθανόνθ᾽ ὁρῶ”.

[158] περὶ κῆρι. See on Od. 5.36; μακάρτατοςἄλλων ib. 105.

[159] ἐέδνοισι βρίσας, ‘having prevailed by his gifts.’ σέ is governed by ἀγάγηται, not by βρίσας, for “βρίθειν” in Homer always bears a neuter sense, as in Il.18. 561; Od.16. 474; 9.219. So in Soph. Aj.130χειρὶ βρίθειν”, Eur. Troad.216ὄλβῳ βρίθειν”. But in Pind. Nem.8. 30; Aesch. Pers.346, etc., it is used transitively. So Eustath. here, “τὸ βρίσας ἀντὶ τοῦ νικήσας ἕδνων πλήθει τοὺς ἄλλους μνηστῆρας”.

[162] Δήλῳ. This visit to Delos seems to belong to the voyage when the Greeks sailed from Aulis to Troy, passing through the Cyclads to Delos, thence by Icaria to Samos, and so on by Lesbos ( Od.4. 342) to Lemnos and the Trojan coast, as in the route described by Nestor, Od.3. 169 foll. Nitzsch quotes from Voss, to the effect that Delos was in Agamemnon's time the regular oracle for sea-faring men. There would seem to have been a palmtree always preserved in the precinct of Delos, like the “μορίαι” or sacred olives in the Academia at Athens; cp. Soph. O. C.705.The Schol. refers to the “πρωτόγονος φοῖνιξ”, connected with the childbearing of Leto, Eur. Hec.458; and Cicero (de Legg. 1. 1. 2) declares that the palm was still to be seen in his day, ‘quod Homericus Ulixes Deli se proceram et teneram palmam vidisse dixit, hodie monstrant eandem;’ so too Pliny, N. H. 16. 99. 44.

[164] ἦλθοντὴν ὁδόν. See note on “βουλὰς βουλεύειν” sup. 61.

[166] ὣς δ᾽ αὔτως (the words always thus separated by “δέ” in Homer) seems to begin the comparison at the wrong end. It would run more naturally “ὡς καὶ κεῖνο ἰδὼν ἐτεθήπεα, ὣς αὔτως σὲ ἄγαμαι”, whereas it takes the reverse order, ‘tantum, illud conspicatus, obstupui quantum te iam nunc admiror.’

[167] ἀνήλυθεν ἐκ δόρυ γαίης. There is a difficulty about this arrangement of words. As a rule, the preposition is not separated from its noun except by enclitic pronouns and particles, or other unemphatic words. And it is very doubtful if we can meet that difficulty by treating ἐκ as an adverb, for “ἐκ” and “ἐν” do not seem to be so used when standing unsupported by any particles. Nor can the arrangement be explained as a case of tmesis; for tmesis, with the preposition put after the verb, is only found with disyllabic prepositions. The line must be regarded as a case of licence unusual in Homer, and may be compared with “εὕροι δ᾽ ἐν πήματα οἴκῳ Od.9. 535, “δήεις δ᾽ ἐν πήματα οἴκῳ Od.11. 115, or Od.10. 290βαλέει δ᾽ ἐν φάρμακα σίτῳ”, where, however, Bekker and Nauck read “ἐνί” with one or two MSS, which would enable the preposition to be regarded as in tmesis.

[170] χθιζός, used with the adverbial force of “χθές”, as in Od.2. 262, etc. Compare ‘sic venias hodierne’ (for hodie) Tibull. 1. 7. 53, ‘Aeneas se matutinus agebat’ (for mane) Aen.8. 465.

[171] τόφρα, i.e. for the whole space of twenty days.

[172] κάββαλε, ‘cast me ashore;’ not “ἀκίνδυνον καταγωγήν”, but “τὴν ἀπὸ πνευμάτων δεινῶν ἐξερριμμένην”, as the Schol. remarks. ‘For I do not think,’ says Odysseus, ‘that my hardships will cease, but the gods, ere that, will bring many of them to pass.’

[173] καὶ τῇδε, ‘here too;’ i.e. as well as in all other scenes of my misery.

[174] πάροιθεν, ‘ere that,’ sc. before the “ἀνάπαυσις” comes. The Schol. cannot be right in rendering πάροιθεν as “ἐς τὸ μετέπειτα”, ‘hereafter;’ for Homer uses “ὄπιθεν” and “ὀπίσσω” in that sense, as Il.1. 343, Od.2. 270.Compare here Il.23. 20ἤδη τοι τελέω τὰ πάροιθεν ὑπέστην”.

[175] σὲἐς πρώτην. The pronoun is thrown out of its natural place in order to put it into a peculiarly emphatic position, and so as exactly to balance τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων. For ἐς used with persons compare Il.7. 312εἰς Ἀγαμέμνονα”, Od.3. 317ἐς Μενέλαον”.

177, 178. πόλινἄστυ. There does not seem to be an intentional distinction here drawn between the two words, such as appears in later Greek, when all political ideas were connected with “πόλις”. But even the etymology points to a distinction which lies at the bottom of this difference. “πόλις” (Skt. purI) is connected with the root “πλε” or “πελ”, and points to the settlement of a multitude of people; while ἄστυ (“ϝάστυ”) is merely a ‘dwelling,’ from root vas, which appears in the Skt. vAstu = domus.’ Cp. Il.17. 144φράζεο νῦν ὅππως κε πόλιν καὶ ἄστυ σαώσεις”.

[179] εἴλυμα σπείρων, as the Schol. interprets “εἴ πού σοι εὐτελὲς ῥάκιον τὴν ἄλλην ἐσθῆτα φρουρεῖν προβέβλητο, τοῦτο δός μοι ἵνα ἀμπίσχωμαι”. Transl. ‘a wrapper of the linen,’ which they had brought to wash, doubtless a covering of coarse canvas or cloth for packing the clothes. Thus his request is a very modest one.

[182] κρεῖσσον τοῦ γε ὅτε. For this pleonastic use of “” with the comparative in addition to the genitive compare

οὔ τις τοῦδε νόος καὶ μῆτις ἀμείνων
αὐτοσχεδίῃ μῖξαι χεῖράς τε μένος τε

,

τί γὰρ ἂν μεῖζον τοῦδ᾽ ἔτι θνατοῖς
πάθος ἐξεύροις
τέκνα θανόντ᾽ ἐσιδέσθαι;

οὐκ ἔστι τοῦδε παισὶ κάλλιον γέρας
πατρὸς ἐσθλοῦ κἀγαθοῦ πεφυκέναι

, Cic. in Verr. 4. 35quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius, quam omnesconvenisse.’” This additional clause introduced by “” or quam is really the epexegesis of the genitive or ablative of the pronoun. For the sentiment Löwe quotes Eur. Med.14ἥπερ μεγίστη γίγνεται σωτηρία

ὅταν γυνὴ πρὸς ἄνδρα μὴ διχοστατῇ”.

[184] ἄλγεα. This is the accusative in apposition to the foregoing clause. Such an accusative is really epexegetical, and may well be compared with the proleptic use of adjective and substantive, as “ἄταν οὐρανίαν φλέγων”, or “διδάσκειν τινὰ ἱππέα”. Some Latin writers, as Virgil and Tacitus, imitated this accusative. But the characteristic case in Latin is the dative, as ‘exitio’ or ‘terrori’ compared with the Greek “χάρμα γενέσθαι. χάρμα” and “πῆμα” are among the words most frequently used in such apposition; as “ μιν τέκε πῆμα βροτοῖσι Od.12. 125, “γυναῖκ᾽ εὐειδἔ ἀνῆγες

ἐξ ἀπίης γαίης νυὸν ἀνδρῶν αἰχμητάων”,
πατρί τε σῷ μέγα πῆμα πόληί τε παντί τε δήμῳ”,
δυσμενέσιν μὲν χάρμα, κατηφείην δὲ σοὶ αὐτῷ Il.3. 48 foll., “Μενέλαον . . ὅν τις ὀιστεύσας ἔβαλεν τόξων εὖ εἰδὼς”,
Τρώων Λυκίων, τῷ μὲν κλέος ἄμμι δὲ πένθος Il.4. 196, which looser apposition of the accusative to the general idea of the clause closely resembles the present passage; as also does “ τις Ἀχαιῶν
ῥίψει χειρὸς ἑλὼν ἀπὸ πύργου, λυγρὸν ὄλεθρον Il.24. 734, or “θάνατόν νύ τοι ὅρκἰ ἔταμνον Il.4. 155.Closely connected with this usage is the familiar Homeric construction “θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι”, where “θαῦμα” is the epexegetical accusative in apposition, while the infinitive defines the sphere of “θαῦμα”, like the Lat. equivalent ‘mirabile visu.’ The accusative that thus resumes the action of the foregoing words is common in the Greek tragedians, as Aesch. Ag.224ἔτλα δ᾽ οὖν θυτὴρ γενέσθαι θυγατρὸς, γυναικοποίνων πολέμων ἀρωγάν”. Compare also Choeph. 199Aesch. Ag., 200; Eur. Orest.1105; Eur. Alcest.7; Androm. 290 foll.; Elect. 1261, etc. For the general sentiment of the passage compare Livy 3. 72hoc socios audire, hoc hostes; quo cum dolore hos, quo cum gaudio illos!’

[185] μάλιστα δέ τ᾽ ἔκλυον αὐτοί. They hear the congratulations of friends, and the envious words of foes; but they hear the story of their own joy repeated even better by their own hearts. In some way like this we must seek for the explanation of the strange use of ἔκλυον, which is suggested by the thought of what friends and foes will utter in their hearing. For it does not seem possible to render, with Lobeck, ‘se invicem felices praedicant, et ab aliis praedicari audiunt,’ inasmuch as “κλύειν” standing alone could hardly be equiva lent to “εὖ” or “κακῶς ἀκούειν”. Compare with this passage Il.13. 734 foll., where it is said of the wise man, “τοῦ δέ τε πολλοὶ ἐπαυρίσκουσ᾽ ἄνθρωποι”,

καί τε πολέας ἐσάωσε, μάλιστα δὲ καὐτὸς ἀνέγνω”. And on this analogy we may accept generally the interpretation of the Schol., “ἤτοι αἰσθάνονται καὶ αὐτοὶ τῆς ὠφελείας τῆς πρὸς ἀλλήλους καὶ ἀπολαύουσι”. The thought may be illustrated from Prov.14. 10‘The heart knoweth his own bitterness, and a stranger doth not intermeddle with his joy;’ or Aesch. Ag.859οὐκ ἄλλων πάρα
μαθοῦσ᾽ ἐμαυτῆς δύσφορον λέξω βίον”.
If on the other hand we are unwilling to assign so artificial a meaning to “κλύειν”, we must be content to refer the words generally to familiar intercourse and talk with friends, but this will be at the expense of the antithesis. ἔκλυον is the gnomic aorist. But, after all, the expression is very strange, and Nauck's judgment, verba vitiosa, seems not improbable.

[187] ἐπεί. The actual apodosis to the protasis introduced by “ἐπεί” comes after the parenthesis, with the words οὔτ᾽ οὖν ἐσθῆτος. The sentence from Ζεύς to ἔμπης is a parenthetical reflection suggested by the condition of Odysseus. The sentence from ἐπεί to ἱκάνεις adds an additional clause to the protasis, and a fresh reason why Nausicaa is disposed to help him. He looks neither a villain nor a fool—only miserable—and misery as well as prosperity is dispensed to men by no rule but the will of the gods; besides, he is here on our shores (she thinks) as a suppliant. Therefore I will befriend him.

188-9. The point in these lines lies in the words ὅπως ἐθέλῃσιν, the arbitrary dispensation of good and evil. Compare “ἀτὰρ θεὸς ἄλλοτε ἄλλῳ

Ζεὺς ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε διδοῖ Od.4. 237.See also Od.14. 444; Il.24. 529 foll.

[190] τάδε, ‘these hardships which I see.’

[193] ὧν ἐπέοιχ᾽ ἱκέτηνἀντιάσαντα, supply “μὴ δεύεσθαι” from “οὐ δευήσεαι” above, as in “ξείνια εὖ παρέθηκε τε ξείνοις” (sc. “παραθεῖναι”) “θέμις ἐστί Il.11. 779.Transl. ‘which it is right that a woebegone suppliant should not lack, when he has met [one who can help him].’ For a similar use of the participle compare “ὡς οὐκ ἂν ἔλποιο νεώτερον ἀντιάσαντα

ἐρξέμεν Od.7. 293, “ἀργαλέον σέ, θεά, γνῶναι βροτῷ ἀντιάσαντι Od.13. 312, “ἀλλά τιν᾽ ὔμμ᾽ ὀίω δόμεναι θεὸν ἀντιάσαντα Il.10. 551.The general sense conveyed by “ἀντιάσαντα” is that there is something of suddenness or emergency in the case.
ταλαπείριον. Cp. Schol. P. V.on Od. 7.24Ἀρίσταρχος μὲν ἀντὶ ταλαίπωρος, τινὲς δὲ ἀντὶ τοῦ ξένος καὶ πόρρωθεν πεπερακὼς μακρόθεν ἀφιγμένος”. But both “ταλαίπωρος” and “ταλαπείριος” are to be referred to root “περ”, to which “πωρ” is related, as “φώρ” to root “φερ”, and “δῶμα” to root “δεμ”.

[197] τοῦ δ᾽ ἐκἔχεται. The construction is the same as in Hdt.6. 109ταῦτα ὦν πάντα ἐς σὲ νῦν τείνει καὶ ἐκ σέο ἄρτηται”. Cp. Hom. Od.11. 346.The same construction occurs after “ἔχεσθαι” without a preposition, as Hom. Il.9. 102σέο δ᾽ ἕξεται ὅττι κεν ἄρχῃ”.

[200] μή που, like “ἆρα μή” in Attic Greek=‘you don't mean that you think, do you?’ Cp. Od.9. 405.

[201] οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ οὗτος ἀνὴρ διερὸς βροτός. If “διερός” means, as Schol. P.Q.V. interprets it, “ζῶν ἐρρωμένως καὶ ἰκμάδος μετέχων”, it is probably to be referred to “διαίνω” and “δεύω”, the connection of the ideas of ‘moisture’ and ‘flexibility’ or ‘activity’ being the same as in the word “ὑγρόςPind. Pyth.1. 17, etc. Compare also the use of “ἀλίβαντες”, the ‘sapless,’ as a synonym for “θανόντες”, as in Plato, Rep.787C. And “διερῷ ποδί” in Od.9. 43 seems to mean ‘with nimble foot.’ In later Greek, ‘moist’ is the regular meaning assigned to “διερός”, as “διερὸν αἷμαAesch. Eum.263, “αὔην καὶ διερήνHes. Opp. 460, “νότιον θέρος ὕδατι ζακότῳ διερόνPind. Frag. 74. 11. Following this line of interpretation, διερὸς βροτός stands here as the predicate, and the whole sentence may be rendered, ‘That man exists not as a living mortal, nor ever will be born, who shall come as a foeman to the Phaeacians' land.’ This is substantially the interpretation of Schol. “β. οὐκ ἔστιν ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος ἄρτι ζῶν, οὐδὲ γεννηθήσεται, ὃς μέλλει τολμῆσαι ἀγαγεῖν ἐς τὴν χώραν ἡμῶν πόλεμον. οὗτος” does not specifically refer to Odysseus, but serves to introduce a general statement, as in Hdt.3. 155οὐκ ἔστι οὗτος ἀνὴρ, ὅτι μὴ σὺ, τῷ ἔστι δύναμις”, Hom. Od.16. 437οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ οὗτος ἀνὴρ οὐδ᾽ ἔσσεται οὐδὲ γένηται

ὅς κεν . . ἐποίσει”, Hom. Il.21. 103νῦν δ᾽ οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὅς τις θάνατον φύγῃ”. Other commentators refer διερός to “δίεσθαι” and “δέος” (cp. Lat. di-rus), and translate it ‘timid’ or ‘fleeing,’ in direct apposition to “οὗτος ἀνήρ”, ‘that man—poor creature that he is.’ The Gloss. in Cod. Pal.gives as an interpretation of “διερός”, the words “βλαπτικός, πειρατικός, πειρατής”, and this, according to Lehrs ( Aristarch.56), was the view of Aristarchus; ‘non est iste vir fugator homo, h. e. non est quem fugere opus sit;’ this rendering necessitates a colon after “βροτός”, and the whole sentence would mean, ‘this man’ (referring to Odysseus) ‘is not a creature to scare us’ (taking up “πόσε φεύγετε”; sup. 199), ‘nor will any one be born who shall come,’ etc. But the first rendering is far preferable. With οὐδὲ γένηται compare Il.1. 262οὐδὲ ἴδωμαι”.

[204] The words ἐνὶ πόντῳ are not conclusive in deciding that Scheria is to be regarded as an island; they only mean that the Phaeacian land lay far across the sea.

[205] ἔσχατοι, used also of the Aethiopians, Od.1. 23.

[206] ἀλλ᾽ ὅδε. The use of “ὅδε” here, when the direct allusion is made to Odysseus, corroborates the view that “οὗτος”, sup. 201, has no such specific allusion. Compare “ξείνω δή τινε τώδε Od.4. 26.

[207] πρὸς Διός, lit. ‘sent by (or from) Zeus,’ and then ‘under the guidance’ or ‘protection’ of Zeus. Cp. Il.1. 238δικάσπολοι, οἵ τε θέμιστας

πρὸς Διὸς εἰρύαται”, and Il.6. 456καί κεν ἐν Ἄργει ἐοῦσα πρὸς ἄλλης ἱστὸν ὑφαίνοις”. With the sentiment compare Od.7. 165Ζεὺς . . ὅς θ᾽ ἱκέτῃσιν ἅμ᾽ αἰδοίοισιν ὀπηδεῖ”.

[208] δόσιςφίλη τε, ‘a gift, though small, is welcome;’ so Schol. “β. ὀλίγη μὲν τῷ διδόντι, φίλη δὲ τῷ λαμβάνοντι, γὰρ ἔνδεια καὶ τὸ ὀλίγον φίλον ἡγεῖται”. Cp. Il.1. 167σοὶ τὸ γέρας πολὺ μεῖζον, ἐγὼ δ᾽ ὀλίγον τε φίλον τε

ἔρχομ᾽ ἔχων”. Soph. O. C.5σμικρὸν μὲν ἐξαιτοῦντα, τοῦ σμικροῦ δ᾽ ἔτι
μεῖον φέροντα, καὶ τόδ᾽ ἐξαρκοῦν ἐμοί”.

[212] εἷσαν ἐπὶ σκέπας, ‘brought him to the sheltered spot and set him down there.’ Compare “θῶκόνδε καθίζανον Od.5. 3.

[214] εἵματα, ‘for raiment,’ in apposition to “φᾶρος” and “χιτῶνα”. Cp. Od.7. 234, etc.

[216] ἤνωγονλοῦσθαι. Nausicaa had said “λούσατε” sup. 210.

[218] οὕτω=‘yonder;’ he denotes the distance by a wave of the hand. Cp. Od.17. 447; Il.22. 498; and note on Od. 1.182.

[224] With ἐκ ποταμοῦ compare “λούειν ἐκ τρίποδος Od.10. 361.

νίζετο χρόαἅλμην. The double accusative here resembles the construction with “ἀφαιρεῖσθαί τινά τι”. See on Od. 1.404. Compare also “ὄφρα τάχιστα

Πάτροκλον λούσειαν ἄπο βρότον αἱματόεντα Il.18. 345, “κελαινεφὲς αἷμα κάθηρον
ἐλθὼν ἐκ βελέων Σαρπηδόνα Il.16. 667, “κεῖσο μετ᾽ ἰχθύσιν οἵ σ᾽ ὠτειλὴν
αἷμ᾽ ἀπολιχμήσονται Il.21. 122.

[226] χνόον (“κνάω-κόνις”) ‘the scurf’ of dry salt. Cp. Od.23. 237πολλὴ δὲ περὶ χροῒ τέτροφεν ἅλμη”.

[227] λίπ᾽ ἄλειψεν, see Od.3. 466.

[229] τὸν μέν, here begins the