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Book 9 (i

The narrative of Odysseus, contained in bb. 9-12, was called, as early as the time of Plato, “*)alki/nou a)po/logos” or “a)po/logoi”, i. e. ‘the story told to Alcinous.’ Plato quotes the title in Rep.614 B, where he introduces the myth of Er the Armenian—a story like the “*ne/kuia” in Od.11—as being not “*)alki/nou ge a)po/logon, a)ll' a)lki/mou me\n a)ndro/s”. Aristotle also uses the same phrase in Rhet.3. 16. 7, and Poet. 16. 5; though, as Mayor remarks, his reference is rather to b. 8. vv. 83-95, and 521-534. The time of the action of this book is the evening of the second day after the arrival in Scheria. The words of Odysseus from vv. 1-15 refer back to what Alcinous had said in b. 8. 536 foll. At v. 16 he complies with the request in 8. 550 “ei)/p' o)/noma”.

3, 4. h)= toi … au)dh/n. These lines are repeated from Od.1. 370 Od., 1.

[5] te/los implies ‘realisation’ or ‘consummation.’ It means rather the ‘highest perfection’ of a thing than the ‘end:’ as we see from the phrase “h)=mar te/les' *)hw/s Od.5. 390; cp. also “te/los ga/moio Od.20. 74, “te/los qana/toio”, etc. In a similar sense “te/leios” is used, as in “teleio/tatos petehnw=n Il.8. 247, of most decisive augury. In the later language of philosophy, “to\ te/los”, like the Lat. ‘finis bonorum,’ came to mean the ‘chief good.’ But “te/los” does not imply so much as that here, as Schol. Q. V. remarks, “ou) panto\s de\ bi/ou th\n h(donh\n te/los ei)/rhken a)lla\ sumposi/ou tino/s”. Plato, Rep.390B, censures the whole passage for its sensual tone; and so Lucian, Parasit. c. 10; but Eustath. says rightly that Odysseus is not here propounding a philosophy, but only chiming in with the opinion expressed by his host in 8. 248.

[6] e)/xh| kata\ dh=mon a(/panta. It would seem as if the direct object to “e)/xh|” was not expressed, but alluded to instead, under its constituent parts: ‘when joy possesses [a people] through all its individuals.’ Such an interpretation might be paralleled by the phrases “qau/mazon kata\ dw=ma Od.4. 44, “to/fra ga\r a)\n kata\ a)/stu potiptussoi/meqa mu/qw| Od.2. 77.Others take e)/xh| kata/ as a mere inversion for “kate/xh|”, as in “fugw\n u(po\ nhlee\s h)=mar”, but the simplest way is to render “e)/xh|”, ‘holds’ or ‘reigns,’ intransitively, as in Eur. I. A.10sigai\ d' a)ne/mwn

to/nde kat' *eu)/ripon e)/xousi”.

[11] tou=to/ ti, lit. ‘this thing in a sort of way.’ This is no hyperbaton for “tou=to ka/llisto/n ti fai/netai ei)=nai”, but a qualification of the general tone of the assertion by the addition of “ti”, as in such combinations as “sxedo/n ti, pa/nu ti”. Cp. Il.21. 101to/fra ti/ moi pefide/sqai e)ni\ fresi\ fi/lteron h)=en

*trw/wn”, Il.9. 197h)= ti ma/la xrew/”. Nitzsch compares Hdt.4. 52ou(/tw dh/ ti e)ou=sa pikrh/”.

[12] soi\ d' e)ma/, ‘but thine heart is set on asking me about my woeful troubles.’

[13] e)/ti ma=llon. As he would do in renewing the memory of the “kh/dea stono/enta”.

[14] ti/ prw=to/n toi. There is no need to read with a few MSS. “ti/ prw=ton, ti/ d' e)/peita”, for the word e)/peita merely introduces a new stage in the action (see note on Od. 1.65); ‘What shall I tell thee “then” first?’ In the next line, the emphasis lies on polla/. It is the multitude of the sorrows he has had which makes it hard for him to know in what order to recount them.

[17] ei)/dete and (18) e)/w are both subjunctives after “o)/fra”.

[19] ei)/m' *)oduseu/s. Virgil imitates this in Aen.1. 378‘Sum pius Aeneas, fama super aethera notus.’

o(\s pa=si … me/lw. It is not easy to decide whether pa=si belongs in the sense of “pantoi/ois” to do/loisin or to a)nqrw/poisi. The latter is supported by “*)argw\ pa=si me/lousa Od.12. 70, but the former seems settled by Od.3. 121e)pei\ ma/la pollo\n e)ni/ka di=os *)odusseu\s

pantoi/oisi do/loisi”. Cp. Theogn. 245 “ou)de/ pot' ou)de\ qanw\n a)polei=s kle/os a)lla\ melh/seis
a)/fqiton a)nqrw/pois ai)e\n e)/xwn o)/noma”.

[21] *)iqa/khn eu)dei/elon. For the interpretation of this passsge see Appendix on Ithaca.

[24] u(lh/essa^ *za/kunqos. See note on Od. 1.246, where also we have “u(lh/enti *zaku/nqw|” and not “u(lhe/ssh|”. Similarly “h)maqo/eis” is used as an adjective of two terminations in fifteen places, “a)mpelo/eis” in Il.2. 561, “poih/eis” ib. 503, the reason being probably merely metrical; see note on Od. 4.406.

[27] kourotro/fos, generally rendered ‘nurse of young heroes,’ like “bwtia/neira”, an epithet of Phthia, Il.1. 155.But the translation of kourotro/fos will be modified by the special meaning assigned to “kou=ros”, and if we take “kou=ros” simply to mean a ‘youth,’ the compounded adjective may be compared with “paidotro/fos”, a Sophoclean epithet for “e)lai/a”, O. C.701.kourotro/fos is also used of Latona, mother of Artemis and Apollo, in Theocr. 18. 50.

[28] h(=s gai/hs, ‘one's own land;’ so inf. 34. On this the Schol. remarks “ou)k ei)=pen ‘e)mh=s’ i(/na kaqolikw/teros ge/nhtai o( lo/gos”. For this use of the possessive or reflexive pronoun with other persons than the third cp. the v. l. “dw/masin oi(=sin Od.1. 402 note. This freedom of usage is illustrated by the formation of the person-endings of the passive voice of the Lat. verb, if we hold that amor = amo-se.

[29] au)to/qi, defined by the words “e)n spe/ssi glaf”. So Il.9. 617su\ d' au)to/qi le/ceo mi/mnwn

eu)nh=| e)ni\ malakh=|”. Cp. Od.4. 362.

[31] w(\s d' au)/tws, the regular collocation in Homer for the later “w(sau/tws de/”.

[32] *ai)ai/h. The island where Circe lived is also called “*ai)ai/h” in Od.10. 135.

[34] w(/s = adeo. A general sentiment, the result of the special instances that precede, is thus introduced by “w(/s” in Od.11. 427w(\s ou)k ai)no/teron kai\ ku/nteron a)/llo gunaiko/s”, similarly with “ou(/tws” in Od.8. 167.

[37] ei) d' a)/ge. See note on Od. 1.276.

e)ni/spw is the subjunctive, as in Il.22. 381ei) d' a)/get' a)mfi\ po/lin su\n teu/xesi peirhqw=men”. More commonly “ei) d' a)/ge” is followed by the imperative, but cp. Od.21. 217; 24.337.

[38] a)po\ *troi/hqen. So “a)p' ou)rano/qen Od.11. 18.

[39] *kiko/nessi. The Cicones, called “ai)xmhtai/ Il.2. 846, lived on the south coast of Thrace, between the rivers Hebrus and Lissus. In historical times they are found on the Hebrus, Hdt. 7. 57, 110. Ismarus, their town, lay at the foot of a mountain of the same name. Cognate with this word, Ismarus, is the name of the priest Maron, inf. 197, and Maroneia, the late name of the Ciconian city, near Lake Ismaris, Hdt.7. 169.For the dative *)isma/rw|, in apposition with, and more closely defining, “*kiko/nessi” cp. Hom. Od.8. 362*ku/pron i(/kane . . e)s *pa/fon”. The Thracians were allies of Troy ( Hom. Il.2. 846), which accounts for the burning of their city by a Greek hero.

[40] au)tou/s here makes a strong contrast with po/lin. Cp. Od.14. 265.

[42] mh/ ti/s moi, ‘that no one, as far as I could help it, should go away deprived of a fair share;’ for i)/sh see on Od. 1.97. For the use of moi in the sense given in the translation, like the later “e)mou= g' e(/neka”, cp. Plato, Rep.343A, where Thrasymachus expresses a doubt whether Socrates has a nurse (“ti/tqh”) to look after him, because he is left in such a state of drivelling ignorance, “o(/ti toi/ se, e)/fh, koruzw=nta periora=| kai\ ou)k a)pomu/ttei deo/menon, o(/s ge au)th=| ou)de\ pro/bata ou)de\ poime/na gignw/skeis”, where “au)th=|” means ‘for aught she teaches you.’ Cp. ib. 391 D; Theaetet. 143

[43] dierw=|. See on Od. 6.201.

[46] e)/sfazon, sc. “oi( e(tai=roi”, who are the subject to “e)pi/qonto” sup. So we find inf. 54 “e)ma/xonto”.

[47] *ki/kones *kiko/nessi. See Od.1. 313; 3.272; 10.82; 20. 173.

[49] h)/peiron, i.e. ‘inland,’ contrasted with the Cicones of Ismarus, who were “paraqala/ssioi”.

a)f' i(/ppwn, not ‘from horseback,’ but ‘from the war-chariot.’ Similarly “i(/ppwn e)pibh/tores Od.18. 263.The sentence is in a concentrated form. Written out fully it would run, “e)pista/menoi me\n a)f' i(/ppwn a)ndra/si ma/rnasqai, e)pista/menoi de\ e)kei= pezoi\ ma/rnasqai o(/qi xrh/ tina pezo\n e)o/nta ma/rnasqai”. For an antithesis given by “me\n . . kai/” compare Il.1. 267ka/rtistoi me\n e)/san kai\ karti/stois e)ma/xonto”.

[50] With pezo\n [sc. tina/] e)o/nta compare Od.11. 159; 19.221. The more natural arrangement would have been to make the words “o(/qi xrh/” parenthetical, and write “pezoi\ e)o/ntes”, as the parallel to “a)f' i(/ppwn”, but the force of “xrh/” seems to break up the sentence, and to introduce the accusatival construction. They know then ‘how to fight from the chariot, and how to fight on foot in that part of the battle where one ought to do so.’

Mayor collects instances of heroes having to leave their chariots and fight afoot; viz. Il.3. 29; 4.419; 5.594; 11. 48, 211; 12. 176; 16. 426. Compare also Caesar de Bell. Gall.4. 33.

[51] w(/rh|, ‘in their season.’ Cp. inf. 135; Od.17. 176.

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