Book 21 (Φ）
 For Ἀχαιοί most MSS. have “οἱ ἄλλοι”, a reminiscence of the same phrase in 6.41, 21.554. There is no record of the Achaians having passed the ford in the previous battles; indeed the ford itself is named only here and in the passages quoted from “Ξ” and “Ω”, always in the same formal line, and like other topographical points seems to be a mere poetical invention for occasional use. The oldest battle-scenes know nothing of it, often though the fight shifts from the city to the camp.
 πεφυζότες, in a state (perf.) of rout, a word recurring only in this book (528, 532) and 22.1. For the formation see H. G. § 26. 5. The isolated perf. part., without any trace of the other parts of tense, may be paralleled in modern Greek, where the perf. pass. has entirely disappeared, with the exception of the participle which is in common use. — The mist spread by Hera is forgotten again immediately, the usual fate of supernatural darkness in a well-marked class of interpolations; see 17.268