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οὗτος , αὕτη, τοῦτο, gen. τούτου, ταύτης, τούτου, etc.: the dual fem. never in Att., v. , , τό, init.:—demonstr. Pron.,
A.this, common from Hom. downwds.
A. ORIGIN and FORMS: οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο prob. arose from a reduplication of the demonstr. , , τό with insertion of -υ- (= Skt. Particle u), e.g. ταῦτα fr. τα-υ-τα: Dor. gen. sg. fem. “τούταςPhilol.11; nom. pl. “τοῦτοι, ταῦταιA.D.Synt.111.23: the former occurs Sophr.24, GDI3045 B6 (Selinus), SIG339.16 (Rhodes, iii B. C.), etc., the latter is dub. in Sophr.97, certain in SIG241 B117 (Delph., iv B. C.): in Boeot. all forms begin with οὑτ-, as gen. sg. neut. “οὕτωSupp.Epigr.3.359.11 (iii B. C.); acc. sg. fem. “οὕτανCorinn. Supp.2.80; acc. pl. neut. “οὗταSIG1185.20 (Tanagra, iii B. C.), etc.: gen. pl. fem. Att. τούτων, Cret. “ταυτᾶνLeg.Gort.5.19; neut. “ταύτωνMichel 1334.10 (Elis, iv B. C.).—In Ion. sts. written ταότην, ταο̂τα, SIG283.19 (Chios, iv B. C.), 46.7 (Halic., v B. C.), al.—In Att. οὗτος was freq. strengthd. by the demonstr. -ί, οὑτοσί, αὑτηί, τουτί, gen. τουτουί, dat. τουτῳί, acc. τουτονί; pl. nom. οὑτοιί, neut. ταυτί, etc., this man here: sts. a Particle is inserted between the Pron. and -ί, as αὑτηγί for αὑτηί γε, Ar.Ach.784; τουτογί for τουτί γε, Id.V.781, Av.894, al.; ταυταγί for ταυτί γε, Id.Eq.492, Pax1057, al.; τουτοδί for τουτὶ δέ, Id.Pl.227; τουτουμενί for τουτουὶ μέν, Id.Ra.965.—In codd. the ν ἐφελκυστικόν is sts. added in the forms οὑτοσίν, οὑτωσίν, and οὑτοσίν is said to be Att. by A.D.Pron.59.24, 82.11. [This ι is always long, and a long vowel or diphthong before it becomes short, as αὑτη^ί, τουτω?ͅί, οὑτοι^ί, Ar.Nu.201, Pl.44, Ach.40, etc.]
B. USAGE in regard to CONCORD. οὗτος is freq. used as a Pron. Subst.: hence neut. is folld. by gen., “κατὰ τοῦτο τῆς ἀκροπόλιοςHdt. 1.84; “εἰς τοῦθ᾽ ὕβρεως ἐλήλυθενD.4.37; “εἰς τοῦθ᾽ ἥκεις μανίαςId.36.48; “ταῦτα τῶν μαθημάτωνPl.Euthd.278b: but quite as freq. as Adj., in which case its Subst. commonly takes the Art., οὗτος ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ οὗτος.—But the Art. is absent,
1. always in Ep. Poets (exc. Od.18.114), “οὗτος ἀνήρIl.14.471, Od.1.406, etc.: sts. also in Trag., A.Pers. 122 (lyr.), 495, S.Ph.406, OC471,1177: once in an Inscr., τοπεῖα: “τούτων τὰ ἡμίσεα τοπείωνIG22.1622.135 (iv B. C.).
3. when οὗτος is used in local sense, here, v. infr. c. 1.5.
4. when the Noun with which οὗτος agrees stands as its Predicate, “αὕτη γὰρ ἦν σοι πρόφασιςS.Ph.1034; δικαστοῦ αὕτη ἀρετή [ἐστι] Pl.Ap.18a: this exception extends to cases in which the Predicate is not so distinctly separated from the Subject, αἰτίαι μὲν αὗται προυγεγένηντο these were the grievances which already existed, Th.1.66; ταύτην φήμην παρέδοσαν this was the report which . . , Pl.Phlb.16c: freq. with a Sup., κίνησις αὕτη μεγίστη δὴ . . ἐγένετο this was notably the greatest movement which . . , Th.1.1, cf. 3.113: with “πρῶτοςId.1.55,98, 6.31, Ev.Luc. 2.2.
5. when 3rd pers. is used for 2nd to express contempt, οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὑτοσὶ ἀνήρ, Pl.Grg.467b,489b, etc.
II. though οὗτος usu. agrees with the Noun that serves as Predicate, it is not rare to find it in the neut., “μανία δὲ καὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἐστίE.Ba.305; “τοῦτο γάρ εἰσι . . εὔθυναιD.19.82, etc.: and in pl., “οὐκ ἔστι ταῦτα ἀρχήAeschin. 3.13; “ταῦτ᾽ ἐστὶν προδότηςId.2.166: so with an explanatory clause added, “τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν συκοφάντης, αἰτιᾶσθαι μὲν πάντα ἐξελέγξαι δὲ μηδένD.57.34.
III. with Prons.,
1. personal, οὗτος σύ, in local sense, v. infr. c.1.5.
4. possess., πατὴρ σὸς οὗτος this father of thine, S.El.530, cf. X.An.7.3.30.
b. exceptionally, “Διφίλου οὗτος ὅδ᾽ ἐστὶ τύποςIG12(5).300 (Paros).
C. SIGNIFICATION AND SPECIAL IDIOMS:
I. this, to designate the nearer, opp. ἐκεῖνος, that, the more remote, ταῦτα, like τὰ ἐνταῦθα, things round and about us, earthly things, Pl.Phd.75e (v. l.); cf. ὅδε init.: but οὗτος sts. indicates that which is not really nearest, but most important, δεῖ . . τὸ βέλτιστον ἀεί, μὴ τὸ ῥᾷστον λέγειν: ἐπὶ ἐκεῖνο μὲν γὰρ φύσις αὐτὴ βαδιεῖται, ἐπὶ τοῦτο δὲ κτλ. D.8.72, cf. 51.3 and 18.
2. when, of two things, one precedes and the other follows, ὅδε prop. refers to what follows, οὗτος to what precedes, “οὐκ ἔστι σοι ταῦτ᾽, ἀλλά σοι τάδ᾽ ἔστιS.OC787, cf. ὅδε III. 2: freq., however, where there are not two things, οὗτος refers to what follows, Il. 13.377, Od.2.306, etc.; οὔκουν . . τοῦτο γιγνώσκεις, ὅτι . . ; A.Pr.379, etc.
3. οὗτος is used emphat., generally in contempt, while ἐκεῖνος denotes praise, πάντ᾽ ἄναλκις οὗτος, i.e. Aegisthus, S.El.301; “τούτους τοὺς συκοφάνταςPl.Cri.45a; so D.de Coron. uses οὗτος of Aeschines, ἐκεῖνος of Philip; but οὗτος is used of Philip, D.2.15, 4.3.
4. in Att. law-language, οὗτος is commonly applied to the opponent, whether plaintiff (as in Aeschin. 2.130) or defendant (as in Id.1.1); so, in the political speeches of D., οὗτοι are the opposite party, 4.1, 8.7, etc.; but in the forensic speeches, οὗτοι freq. means the judges, the court, 21.134, 36.47.
5. much like an Adv., in local sense (cf. ὅδε init.), τίς δ᾽ οὗτος κατὰ νῆας . . ἔρχεαι; who art thou here that comest . . ? Il.10.82; freq. in Att., τίς οὑτοσί; who's this here? Ar.Ach.1048; πολλὰ ὁρῶ ταῦτα πρόβατα I see many sheep here, X.An.3.5.9 (as v.l.): with Pron. of 2 pers., οὗτος σύ ho you! you there! S.OT532, 1121, E.Hec.1280, etc.: and then οὗτος alone like a voc., οὗτος, τί ποιεῖς; A.Supp.911,cf.S.Aj.71, E.Alc. 773, Ar.Eq.240, Nu.220, al.: with a pr. n., “ οὗτος, ΑἴαςS.Aj.89; “ οὗτος οὗτος, ΟἰδίπουςId.OC1627, cf. Ar.V.1364: with voc., “βέντισθ᾽ οὗτοςTheoc.5.76:—the fem. is rarer, “αὕτηE.Med.922; “αὕτη σύAr.Th. 610.—This phrase mostly implies anger, impatience, or scorn.
II. simply as antec. to ὅς, Od.2.40, S.OT1180, etc.: freq. following relat. clause, “ γ᾽ ἔλαβες, . . μεθεῖναι ταῦταId.Ph.1247, cf. 1319,Ant. 183, 203, Pl.Grg.469c.
IV. after a parenthesis, the Subject, though already named, is freq. emphat. repeated by “οὗτος, οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ Ἀριστέης . . , οὐδὲ οὗτος προσωτέρω . . ἔφησε ἀπικέσθαιHdt.4.16, cf.81 (s. v. l.), 1.146, Pl.Phd.107d, etc.
V. καὶ οὗτος is added to heighten the force of a previous word, “ξυνεστῶτες . . ναυτικῷ ἀγῶνι, καὶ τούτῳ πρὸς ἈθηναίουςTh.4.55, cf. Hdt.1.147, 6.11, etc.; so “οὐδὲ τούτουAeschin.2.100; v. infr. VIII.2.
VI. repeated, where for the second we should merely say he or it, “τοῖσιν τούτου τοῦτον μέλεσιν . . κελαδοῦντεςAr.Ra.1526, cf. Pl.La.200d.
VII. ταῦτα is used in some special phrases,
3. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ταῦτα so much for that, freq. in Att., as Pl.Smp. 220c.
4. ταῦτα at end of a formula in epitaphs, etc., prob. short for ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχει or βίος ταῦτά ἐστιν, e.g. οὐδὶς ( = -εὶς ἀθάνατος: “ταῦταIG14.420; Προκόπι ταῦτα ib.1824; χαίρεται ( = -τε ταῦτα ib.1479, etc.: similarly perh. in a letter, “ἂμ μὴ πέμψῃς, οὐ μὴ φάγω, οὐ μὴ πείνω. ταῦταPOxy.119.15 (ii/iii A. D.).
VIII. Adverbial usages:
b. πρὸς ταῦτα so then, therefore, prop. used in indignant defiance, A.Pr.992, 1043, S.Aj.971, 1115, 1313, OT426, OC455, etc.
b. καὶ ταῦτα anyhow, no matter what happens (or happened), ἐπεχείρησας, οὐδὲν ὢν καὶ ταῦτα you tried, but were no good anyhow, i.e. try as you might, Id.R. 341c, cf. Diod.Com.3.5.
3. τοῦτο μέν . . , τοῦτο δέ . . on the one hand . . , on the other . . , partly . . , partly . . , very freq. in Hdt., as 1.161, al.; τοῦτο μέν is sts. answered by δέ only, 4.76, S.Aj.670, OC440; by δὲ αὖ, Hdt.7.176; by ἔπειτα δέ, S.Ant.61; by ἀλλά, D.22.13; by εἶτα, S.Ph.1345; by τοῦτ᾽ αὖθις, Id.Ant.165.
4. dat. fem. ταύτῃ,
b. in this point, herein, “μηδὲν ταύτῃ γε κομήσῃςId.Pl.572, cf. X.Hier.7.12, etc.
6. ἐν τούτῳ in that case, Pl.R.440c.
b. in the meantime, Hdt.1.126, Th.3.72, X.Mem.2.1.27.
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