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ὑπερβάλλω , fut. -βαλῶ, Ep.
A.-βαλέωOd.11.597: Ep. aor. 2 “ὑπειρέβαλονIl.23.637:—throw over or beyond a mark, overshoot,ὑπέρβαλε σήματα πάντωνIl.23.843; τόσσον παντὸς ἀγῶνος (sc. σήματα ὑπέρβαλε ib.847; δουρὶ . Φυλῆα beat him in throwing with it, ib.637.
2. ὅτε μέλλοι ἄκρον [λόφον] ὑπερβαλέειν force the stone over the top, Od. l.c.
3. intr., run beyond, overrun the scent, of hounds, X.Cyn.6.20.
4. outstrip or pass, in racing, τινας S.El.716.
5. Med., throw a stone over one's head, SIG1071 (Olympia).
II. in various metaph. senses:
1. outdo, excel, surpass, overpower,δέδοικα μὴ πρὶν πόνοις ὑπερβάλῃ με γῆραςE.Fr.453.5 (lyr.): c. gen., Pi.Fr.33; “βροντῆς ὑπερβάλλοντα κτύπονA.Pr.923.
2. go beyond, exceed,μήτ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὑπερβάλλων βοὸς ὁπλὴν μήτ᾽ ἀπολείπωνHes.Op.489; “. πόσιος μέτρονThgn.479; “τὴν τοῦ μετρίου φύσινPl.Plt.283e; “. τὰ ἱκανάX.Hier.4.8: of Time, “. ἑκατὸν ἔτεαexceed 100 years, in age, Hdt.3.23; . τὰς τρεῖς ἡμέρας delay longer than . . , Hp.VC14; . τὸν χρόνον exceed the time, i. e. be too late, X.HG5.3.21; . τὸν καιρόν exceed reasonable bounds, Democr.235, D.23.122: in number, intensity, etc., “ἡδοναὶ . λύπαςPl.Lg.734b, cf. Prt.356b (Pass.): c. dat. modi, exceed one in . . , “πάντας ἀνθρώπους τόλμῃ καὶ μιαρίᾳX.HG7.3.6; “ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους ὠμότητιD.18.275: abs., “. πρὸς ἀρετήνPl.Lg.945c.
b. freq. in part. ὑπερβάλλων, ουσα, ον, exceeding, excessive,. δαπάνηX.Hier.11.2; ἡδονή, ἔπαινοι, Pl.R.402e, Phdr.240e; “θεάματα ταῖς δαπάναις .Isoc.4.45, cf. Pl.Lg.899a; οἱ ὑπερβάλλοντες, opp. οἱ καταδεέστεροι, Isoc.9.13; “τὰ .an over-high estate, E.Med.127 (anap.); “φεύγειν τὰ . ἑκατέρωσεextremes, Pl.R.619a; τὸ . αὐτῶν such part of them as goes beyond that, Th.2.35; οἱ . [λόγοι], title of work by Thrasymachus (Fr. 7), perh. overpowering arguments.
4. overbid or outbid at auction, “ἀλλήλουςLys.22.8, POxy.1633.5 (iii A. D.); τὸ ὑπερβάλλον the overbid, PPetr.3p.195 (iii B. C.): abs., go on further and further, in making offers, προέβαινε τοῖσι χρήμασι ὑπερβάλλων he went on bidding more and more, Hdt.5.51; “ᾔτει τοσαῦτα ὑπερβάλλωνTh.8.56, cf. And.1.133:— Pass., “ἕνεκα τοῦ-βεβλῆσθαι τὴν οἰκίανPOxy.513.25 (ii A. D.); v. infr. B. 1.3.
5. Adv. “ὑπερβαλλόντωςexceedingly, Pl.R.492b, Epicur. Nat.2.2, SIG685.36 (Crete, ii B. C.), Phld.Lib.p.7O., 2 Ep.Cor.11.23; written ὑπερβαλόντως in IG12(7).410.12 (Amorgos); opp. μετρίως, Isoc.1.28.
III. pass over, cross mountains, rivers, and the like , “πρῶναA.Ag.307; “κορυφάςId.Pr.722; “γῆς ὅρουςE.Or.443; “τὰς Ἄλπεις εἰς τὴν ἸταλίανStr.7.2.3: c. gen., “θριγκοῦ τοῦδ᾽ . ποδίE.Ion 1321 (where Dobree suggested θριγκοὺς τούσδ᾽): metaph., surmount,τάσδ᾽ . τύχαςId.Alc.795.
b. of ships, double a headland, “. ΜαλέηνHdt.7.168; “τὴν ἄκρανTh.8.104.
2. of water, run over, beat over, c. gen., “ὑπερβάλλει δὲ θάλασσα ἀμφοτέρων τοίχωνThgn.673; of rivers, overflow,τὰς ἀρούραςHdt.2.111: abs., of a kettle, boil over, Id.1.59; of the sea, “ἢν δ᾽ ὑπερβάλῃ . . πόντοςE.Tr.691.
3. of the sun, to be very hot, Hdt.4.184.
4. exceed, i. e. overlap, a base, Euc.6.29; cf. ὑπερβολή IV.—Note, the case that follows is almost always the acc.; the gen. occurs in a few exceptional instances, v. supr. 11.2 b, 111.1 and 2.
B. Med., with pf. Pass., = A. 11, outdo, overcome, conquer, τινα Hdt.5.124, Ar.Eq.758 (lyr.), Nu.1035; “τὴν βασιλέος δύναμινHdt.8.24; “μάχῃ . τινάE.Or.691; “φίλτροις . τινάS.Tr.584, cf. Ar.Eq. 413: abs., to be conqueror, Hdt.6.9, 7.168.
3. overbid, outbid (v. supr. A. 11.4), “τινὰ χρήμασινPl. Phdr.232c, cf. X.Cyr.5.3.32.
4. outflank,τὸ κέρας τῶν πολεμίωνAscl.Tact.10.2, cf.18.
II. put off, postpone,τὴν ἀπόδοσινHdt.4.9; “τὴν συμβολήνId.9.45; “εἰς ἄλλον καιρόνPhld.Rh.1.223S.; but ἢν ὑπερβάλωνται ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν . . συμβολὴν μὴ ποιεύμενοι if they let that day pass without fighting, Hdt.9.51: abs., delay, linger, Id.3.71,76, 7.206; “εἰς αὖθις ὑπερβαλέσθαιPl.Phdr.254d, cf. Arist.Rh.Al. 1420a8, 1438b6.
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