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ὡς :—Summary:
A. as ADVERB of Manner.
Aa. ὧς and ὥς (with accent), so, thus.
Ab. ὡς (without accent) of the Relat. Pron. ὅς, as.
Ac. ὡς Relat. and Interrog., how.
Ad. ὡς temporal, when.
Ae. ὡς Local, where,
B. ὡς, as CONJUNCTION.
C, D. various usages.
A. ADVERB of Manner:
Aa. ὥς , Demonstr., = οὕτως, so, thus, freq. in Hom., Il.1.33, al.; “ὢς εἶπ᾽Sapph.Supp.20a.11 (Epic style); in Ion. Prose, Hdt.3.13, al.; rare in Att., and almost confined to certain phrases, v. infr. 2, 3; ὥς simply = οὕτως, A.Ag.930, Th.3.37, Pl.Prt.338a; “ἀλλ᾽ ὣς γενέσθωE.Hec.888, al.
2. καὶ ὧς even so, nevertheless, Il.1.116, al.; οὐδ᾽ ὧς not even so, 7.263, Od.1.6, al., Hdt.6.76; “οὐδέ κεν ὧςIl.9.386: the phrases καὶ ὧς, οὐδ᾽ ὧς, μηδ᾽ ὧς, are used in Trag. and Att., S.Ant.1042, Th.1.74, 7.74; also later, PCair.Zen.19.10 (iii B. C., unaccented), UPZ146.40 (ii B. C.), GDI 1832.11 (Delph., ii B. C.), IG22.850.17 (iii B. C.); “κἂν ὧς, εἴπερ μέλει σοι, ἀπόστειλόν μοί τιναPOxy.120.11 (iv A. D.); “δουλεύων καθὼς καὶ ὧςGDI2160 (Delph., ii B. C.); Thess. “καὶ οὗςIG9(2).234.1 (iii B. C.); for this phrase the accentuation ὧς is prescribed by Hdn.Gr.2.932, al., cf. A.D.Synt.307.16, and is found in good Mss. of Homer; for the remaining uses under this head (Aa. 1, 3, 4) the accentuation ὥς is prescribed by the same grammarians.
3. in Comparisons, ὥς . . , ὡς . . , so . . as . . , etc.; and reversely ὡς . . , ὣς . . , as . . so, Il.1.512, 14.265, etc.; in Att., Pl.R.530d; also ὥς τε . . ὣς . . , as . . thus . . , h.Cer.174-6, E.Ba.1066-8; “οἷα . . ὥςId.El.151-5; ὥσπερ . . , ὣς δὲ . . (in apodosi) Pl.Prt.326d.
4. thus, for instance, Od.5.129, h.Ven. 218; ὥς shd. be accented in Od.5.121, 125.
Ab. ὡς , Relat., as, Hom., etc.; prop. relat. to a demonstr. Adv., which is freq. omitted, κινήθη δ᾽ ἀγορὴ ὡς κύματα μακρὰ θαλάσσης, i. e. οὕτως, ὡς . . , Il.2.144 (“φὴZenod.): it is relat. not only to the regular demonstr. Advs. ὥςὧς), τώς, ὧδε, οὕτως, αὕτως, but also to ταύτῃ, Pl.R.365d, etc. We find a collat. Dor. form (q. v.); cf. ὥτε. Usage:
I. in similes, freq. in Hom., Il.5.161, al.; longer similes are commonly introduced by “ὡς ὅτε, ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε, ἤριπε δ᾽, ὡς ὅτε πύργος [ἤριπε]4.462: “ἤριπε δ᾽, ὡς ὅτε τις δρῦς ἤριπε13.389, cf. 2.394; so later, Emp.84.1, etc.; “ὡς ὅτε θαητὸν μέγαρον, πάξομενPi.O.6.2: ὡς ὅτε is rare in short similes, Od.11.368: ὡς is folld. by indic. pres., Il.9.4, 16.364: also by aor., 3.33 sq., 4.275, 16.823, al.; also by subj. pres. or aor., 5.161, 10.183,485, 13.334 (sts. ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ἄν, 11.269, 17.520); cf. ὥστε A:—the Verb is sts. omitted with ὡς, but may be supplied from the context, ἐνδούπησε πεσοῦσ᾽, ὡς εἰναλίη κήξ (sc. πίπτει) Od.15.479, cf. 6.20; “θεὸς δ᾽ ὣς τίετο δήμῳIl.5.78; “οἱ δὲ φέβοντο . . , βόες ὣς ἀγελαῖαιOd.22.299: where ὡς follows the noun to which it refers, it takes the accent; so in Com., “Ἀριστόδημος ὥςCratin.151, cf. Eub.75.6; v. infr. H.
2. like as, just as,ὡς οὗτος κατὰ τέκν᾽ ἔφαγε . . , ὣς ἡμεῖς κτλ.Il.2.326, v. supr. Aa. 3.
II. with Adverbial clauses:
1. parenthetically, in qualifying clauses, ὡς ἔοικε, etc., Pl. Smp.176c, etc.: in these cases γε or γοῦν is freq. added, ὡς γοῦν λόγος σημαίνει as at any rate the argument shows, Id.R.334a; in some phrases c. inf., v. infr. B. 11.3. An anacoluthon sts. occurs by the Verb of the principal clause being made dependent on the parenthetic Verb, ὡς δὲ Σκύθαι λέγουσι, νεώτατον ἁπάντων ἐθνέων εἶναι (for ἦν)“ τὸ σφέτερονHdt.4.5, cf. 1.65; “ὡς ἐγὼ ἤκουσα, εἶναι αὐτόνId.4.76; ὡς γὰρ . . ἤκουσά τινος, ὅτι . . X.An.6.4.18 codd.; ἁνὴρ ὅδ᾽ ὡς ἔοικεν οὐ νεμεῖν (for οὐ νεμεῖ, ὡς ἔοικε), S.Tr.1238.
3. ὡς attached to the object of the Verb, as,ἑωυτὸν ὡς ἐχθρὸν λυπέειDemocr.88; “ἔλαβεν ἀμφοτέρους ὡς φίλους ἤδηX.Cyr.3.2.25; “ἐν οἰκήματι ὡς ταμιείῳ ἐχρῆτοPl.Prt.315d.— For the similar usage of ὡς with Participles and Prepositions, v. infr. c.
III. with Adverbs:
a. with the Posit., “ὡς ἀληθῶςtruly, Pl.Phdr.234e (cf. “ἀληθής111.1b: as if Adv. of τὸ ἀληθές; ὡς ἑτέρως in the other way, ib.276c, D.18.212 (Adv. of ἕτερος; v. ἕτερος v. 2) (v. infr. D.1.1); ὡς ἠπίως, ὡς ἐτητύμως, S.El.1438 (lyr.), 1452; “ὡς ὁμοίωςSIG708.34 (Istropolis, ii B. C.), LXX 4 Ma.5.21, 1 Enoch5.3, IG7.2725.16 (Acraeph., ii A. D.); “ὡς ἐναλλάξVett.Val. 215.9, 340.2; “ὡς παντελῶςId.184.26; “ὡς ἄλλωςIs.7.27, D.6.32; “ὡς ἐνδεχομένωςPPetr.2p.53 (iii B. C.); in ὣς αὔτως (v. ὡσαύτως) we have the Adv. of αὐτός, but the ὥς retains its demonstr. force, as does in Homer; ὡς ἀληθῶς, ὡς ὁμοίως, and ὡς παντελῶς may be modelled on ὣς αὔτως, with which they are nearly synonymous; so also ὡς ἑτέρως and ὡς ἐναλλάξ, which are contrasted with it.
b. with Advbs. expressing anything extraordinary, θαυμαστῶς or θαυμασίως ὡς, ὑπερφυῶς ὡς, v. sub vocc.; ὡς is sts. separated by several words from its Adv., as “θαυμαστῶς μοι εἶπες ὡς παρα᾽ δόξανPl.Phd.95a; “ὑπερφυῶς δὴ τὸ χρῆμα ὡς δύσγνωστον φαίνεταιId.Alc.2.147c, cf. Phd. 99d.
c. with the Sup., as much as can be,ὡς μάλισταTh.1.141, etc.: ὡς ῥᾷστα as easily as possible, A.Pr.104; “ὡς πλεῖσταDemocr. 189; ὠς τάχιστα as quickly as possible, Alc.Supp.4.15, etc.; more fully expressed, “ὡς δυνατὸν ἄρισταIsoc.12.153; “ὡς ἐδύναντο ἀδηλόταταTh.7.50; “μαχομένους ὡς ἂν δυνώμεθα κράτισταX.An.3.2.6; “ὡς οἷόν τε βελτιστονPl.R.403d; ὡς ἀνυστὸν κάλλιστα Diog.Apollon.3: ὡς and ὅτι are sts. found together, where one is superfluous, “ὡς ὅτι μάλισταPl.Lg.908a; “βοῦν ὡς ὅτι κάλλιστονIG22.1028.17 (ii/i B. C.); v. infr. G.
d. with Comp., “ὡς θᾶσσονPlb.1.66.1, 3.82.1.
2. with Adjs.,
Ac. Relat. and Interrog., how,μερμήριζε . . ὡς Ἀχιλῆα τιμήσειεIl. 2.3, cf. Pl.R.365a; “ἐβουλεύοντο ὡς . . στήσονταιHdt.3.84, etc.; “οἷα δεῖ λέγειν καὶ ὥςArist.EN1128a1; ὡς πέπραται how, i. e. at what price the goods have been sold, PCair.Zen.149 (iii B. C.); so οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὡς . . (for the more usu. ὅπως) nowise can it be that . . , S.Ant.750; οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὡς οὐ . . , Id.Ph.196 (anap., Porson for οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως ου; οἶσθ᾽ ὡς πόησον; by a mixture of constructions for ὡς χρὴ ποιῆσαι or ὡς ποιήσεις, Id.OT543, cf. Hermipp.43, Men.916; οἶσθ᾽ ὡς μετεύξει is f.l. in E.Med.600 (μέτευξαι Elmsley); similarly, “οἶσθα . . ὡς νῦν μὴ σφαλῇςS.OC75.
2. ὡς ἂν ποήσῃς however (in whatever way) thou mayest act, Id.Aj.1369, cf. Pl.Smp.181a; “αὐτῷ ὥς κεν ἅδῃ, τὼς ἔσσεταιA.R.3.350.
Ad. Temporal, when, with past tenses of the indic., “ἐνῶρτο γέλως . . , ὡς ἴδονIl.1.600: with opt., to express a repeated action, whenever,ὡς . . ἐς τὴν Μιλησίην ἀπίκοιτοHdt.1.17: rarely c. subj., to denote what happens under certain conditions, “τῶν δὲ ὡς ἕκαστός οἱ μειχθῇ, διδοῖ δῶρονId.4.172, cf. 1.132; later, ὡς ἄν c. subj., when, PCair.Zen.251 (iii B. C.), 1 Ep.Cor.11.34, etc.; “ὥς καBerl.Sitzb.1927.170 (Cyrene); ὡς ἂν τάχιστα λάβῃς τὴν ἐπιστολήν as soon as . . PCair.Zen.241.1 (iii B. C.), cf. LXX 1 Ki.9.13, Jo.3.8: in orat. obliq. c. inf., Hdt.1.86, 96, al.: expressed more forcibly by ὡς . . τάχιστα, some word or words being interposed, ὡς γὰρ ἐπετρόπευσε τάχιστα as soon as ever . . , Id.1.65; “ὡς δὲ ἀφίκετο τάχισταX.Cyr.1.3.2: less freq. ὡς τάχιστα stand together, Aeschin.2.22: but this usage must be distd. from signf. Ab.111.1c: folld. by demonstr., “ὡς εἶδ᾽, ὣς ἀνεπᾶλτοIl.20.424; “ὡς ἴδεν, ὥς μιν ἔρως πυκινὰς φρένας ἀμφεκάλυψεν14.294; also “ὡς . . , ἔπειτα3.396; “Κρονίδης ὥς μιν φράσαθ᾽ ὣς ἐόλητο θυμὸν ἀνωΐστοισιν ὑποδμηθεὶς βελέεσσι ΚύπριδοςMosch.2.74; the second ὣς is repeated, “ δ᾽ Ἀταλάντα ὡς ἴδεν, ὣς ἐμάνη, ὣς ἐς βαθὺν ἅλατ᾽ ἔρωταTheoc.3.41 (ὣς = εὐθέως, Sch.vet.), cf. 2.82; in Bion 1.40 the clauses with ὡς all belong to the protasis.
2. ὡς appears to be f.l. for ἕως in “ὡς ἂν αὑτὸς ἥλιος . . αἴρῃS.Ph.1330, “ὡς ἂν ᾖς οἷόσπερ εἶId.Aj.1117; cf. “ὥσπερ111.1: but in later Gr. = ἕως, while,ὡς τὸ φῶς ἔχετεEv.Jo.12.35, 36; “ὡς καιρὸν ἔχομενEp.Gal.6.10, cf. Epigr.Gr.646a5 (p.529); also until,τίθεται ἐπὶ ἀνθράκων ὡς ἀναξηρανθῇPLeid.X.89 B.; ἔα ἀφρίζειν τὴν πίσσαν ὡς οὗ ἐκλείπῃ ib.37B.; cf. EM824.43 (conversely ἕως for ὡς final, v. ἕως (B) A. 1.4).
Ae. Local, where, in dialects, Theoc.1.13, 5.101, 103, IG9(2).205.4 (Melitea, iii B. C.), SIG685.63, al. (Cretan, ii B. C.), IG12(1).736.5 (Camirus), GDI5597.8 (Ephesus, iii B. C.).
B. ὡς as CONJUNCTION:
I. with Substantive clauses, to express a fact, = ὅτι, that.
II. with Final clauses, to express an end or purpose, = ἵνα, ὅπως, so that, in order that.
III. Consecutive, = ὥστε, so that.
IV. Causal, since, because.
I. with Substantive Clauses, with verbs of learning, saying, etc., that, expressing a fact, “γνωτὸν . . , ὡς ἤδη Τρώεσσιν ὀλέθρου πείρατ᾽ ἐφῆπταιIl.7.402, cf. Od.3.194, etc.: in commands, “προεῖπεν ὡς μηδεὶς κινήσοιτοX.HG2.1.22: with Verbs of fear or anxiety, c. fut. indic., “μηκέτ᾽ ἐκφοβοῦ, μητρῷον ὥς σε λῆμ᾽ ἀτιμάσει ποτέS.El.1427, cf. X.Cyr.6.2.30; μὴ φοβοῦ ὡς ἀπορήσεις ib.5.2.12, cf. D.10.36; a sentence beginning with ὡς is sts., when interrupted, resumed by ὅτι, and vice versa, X.Cyr.5.3.30, Pl.R.470d, Hp.Ma.281c; so ὡς with a finite Verb passes into the acc. and inf., Hdt.1.70, 8.118: both constructions mixed in the same clause, ἐλογίζετο ὡς . . ἧττον ἂν αὐτοὺς ἐθέλειν . . X.Cyr.8.1.25, cf. HG3.4.27: after primary tenses (incl. historic pres.) ὡς is folld. by indic., after historic tenses by opt. (sts. by indic., both constructions in “ὑπίσχοντο . . ἀμυνέειν, φράζοντες ὡς οὔ σφι περιοπτέη ἐστὶ Ἑλλὰς ἀπολλυμένη . . ἀλλὰ τιμωρητέον εἴηHdt.7.168): sts. c. opt. after a primary tense, “κατάπτονται . . λέγοντες ὡς Ἀρίστων . . οὐ φήσειεId.6.69, cf. 1.70, Th.1.38, Pl.Chrm.156b.
2. ὡς is also used with past tenses of the indic. to express a purpose which has not been or cannot be fulfilled, τί μ᾽ οὐκ ἔκτεινας, ὡς ἔδειξα μήποτε . . ; so that I never should . . , S.OT1392; “ἔδει τὰ ἐνέχυρα λαβεῖν, ὡς μηδ᾽ εἰ ἐβούλετο ἐδύνατο ἐξαπατᾶνX.An. 7.6.23; cf. “ἵναB. 1.3, “ὅπωςB. 1.3.
3. ὡς is sts. omitted where the antecedent demonstrative is expressed, οὕτω ἰσχυραί, μόγις ἂν διαρρήξειας so strong, you could hardly break them, Hdt.3.12; “ῥώμη σώματος τοιήδε, ἀεθλοφόροι τε ἀμφότεροι ἦσανId.1.31.
2. on the ground that . . , c. fut. indic., Lys.30.27.
C. ὡς before
I. Participles;
II. Prepositions; and
III. ὡς itself as a Preposition.
b. later, in geographical expressions, of direction, “προϊών, ὡς ἐπὶ τὸν ΠηνειόνStr.9.5.8, cf. 13.1.22; “ὡς πρὸς ἕω βλέπωνId.8.6.1, cf. 7.6.2; ὡς εἰς Φηραίαν (leg. Ἡραίαν)“ ἰόντωνId.8.3.32.
III. ὡς as a Prep., prop. in cases where the object is a person, not a place: once in Hom., “ὡς αἰεὶ τὸν ὁμοῖον ἄγει θεὸς ὡς τὸν ὁμοῖονOd.17.218 (v.l. ἐς τὸν ὁμοῖον, cf. “αἶνος Ὁμηρικός, αἰὲν ὁμοῖον ὡς θεός . . ἐς τὸν ὁμοῖον ἄγειCall.Aet.1.1.10; ἔρχεται . . ἕκαστον τὸ ὅμοιον ὡς τὸ ., τὸ πυκνὸν ὡς τὸ πυκνόν κτλ. (with v.l. ἐς) Hp.Nat.Puer.17), but possibly ὡς . . ὥς as . . so, in Od. l.c.; also in Hdt., “ἐσελθεῖν ὡς τὴν θυγατέρα2.121.έ: freq. in Att., “ὡς Ἆγιν ἐπρεσβεύσαντοTh.8.5, etc.; “ἀφίκετο ὡς Περδίκκαν καὶ ἐς τὴν ΧαλκιδικήνId.4.79; “ἀπέπλευσαν ἐς Φώκαιαν . . ὡς ἈστύοχονId.8.31; ναῦς ἐς τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον ὡς Φαρνάβαζον ἀποπέμπειν ib.39; “ὡς ἐκεῖνον πλέομεν ὥσπερ πρὸς δεσπότηνIsoc. 4.121; the examples of ὡς with names of places are corrupt, e.g. “ὡς τὴν ΜίλητονTh.8.36 (ἐς cod. Vat.); ὡς Ἄβυδον one Ms. in Id.8.103; “ὡς τὸ πρόσθενAr.Ach.242: in S.OT1481 ὡς τὰς ἀδελφὰς . . τὰς ἐμὰς χέρας is equiv. to ὡς ἐμὲ τὸν ἀδελφόν; in Id.Tr.366 δόμους ὡς τούσδε house = household.
D. ὡς in independent sentences:
I. as an exclamation, how, mostly with Advbs. and Adjs., ὡς ἄνοον κραδίην ἔχες how silly a heart hadst thou! Il.21.441; ὡς ἀγαθὸν καὶ παῖδα λιπέσθαι how good is it . . , Od.3.196, cf. 24.194; “φρονεῖν ὡς δεινόνS.OT316; ὡς ἀστεῖος ἄνθρωπος how charming he is! Pl.Phd.116d; “ὡς ἐμεγαλύνθη τὰ ἔργα σου, ΚύριεLXX Ps.91(92).6, 103(104).24; in indirect clauses, ἐθαύμασα τοῦτο, ὡς ἡδέως . . ἀπεδέξατο marvelled at seeing how . . , Pl. Phd.89a.
E. ὡς with numerals marks that they are to be taken only as a round number, as it were, about, nearly,σὺν ἀνθρώποις ὡς εἴκοσιX.An.3.3.5; also ὡς πέντε μάλιστά κῃ about five (v. “μάλα111.5), Hdt.7.30:—also with words compounded with numerals, “δέπας . . ὡς τριλάγυνονStesich.7; παῖς ὡς ἑπτέτης of some seven years, Pl. Grg.471c; “δρέπανα ὡς διπήχηX.Cyr.6.1.30, cf. An.5.4.12; cf. “ὡσεί111.
F. ὡς in some elliptical (or apparently elliptical) phrases:
1. ὡς τί δὴ τόδε (sc. γένηται); to what end? E.Or.796 (troch.); cf. “ἵναB.11.3c.
3. ὡς ἕκαστος, ἕκαστοι, each severally (whether in respect of time, place, or other difference), “ξυνελέγοντο . . Κορίνθιοι δισχίιοι ὁπλῖται, οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλοι ὡς ἕκαστοι, Φλειάσιοι δὲ πανστρατιᾷTh.5.57, cf. 1.107, 113; πρώτη τε αὕτη πόλις ξυμμαχὶς παρὰ τὸ καθεστηκὸς ἐδουλώθη, ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὡς ἑκάστη [ξυνέβη] ξ. secl. Krüger: ἀπὸ κοινοῦ ἐδουλώθη Sch.l.c.) Id.1.98; ἄλλοι τε παριόντες ἐγκλήματα ἐποιοῦντο ὡς ἕκαστοι ib.67, cf. 7.65; χρησμολόγοι τε ᾖδον χρησμοὺς παντοίους, ὧν ἀκροᾶσθαι ὡς ἕκαστος ὥρμητο, i. e. different persons ran to listen to different prophecies, Id.2.21; τὰς ἄλλας ὡς ἑκάστην ποι ἐκπεπτωκυῖαν ἀναδησάμενοι ἐκόμιζον ἐς τὴν πόλιν they made fast to the rest wherever each (ship) had been run ashore, Id.7.74; οἱ δ᾽ οὖν ὡς ἕκαστοι Ἕλληνες κατὰ πόλεις τε ὅσοι ἀλλήλων ξυνίεσαν καὶ ξύμπαντες ὕστερον κληθέντες οὐδὲν πρὸ τῶν Τρωικῶν . . ἁθρόοι ἔπραξαν the various peoples that were later called by the common name of Greeks, Id.1.3; “ὡς ἑκάστῳ ἔργον προστάσσωνHdt.1.114; ὡς ἑκάστην (one by one) αἱρέοντες (sc. τὰς νήσους)“ οἱ βάρβαροι ἐσαγήνευον τοὺς ἀνθρώπουςId.6.31, cf. 79; “ὡς ἑκασταχόσεD.C.41.9, al.; rarely with a Verb, “ὡς ἕκαστος ἀπικνέοιτοHdt.1.29, cf. Th.6.2: later ὡς follows “ἕκαστος, ἑκάστῳ ὡς Θεὸς ἐμέρισεν μέτρον πίστεωςEp.Rom.12.3:—for the etymology v. infr. H; also “ὡς ἑκάτεροιTh.3.74 (v. infr. H).
G. ὡς pleonast. in “ὡς ὅτιD.H. 9.14, 2 Ep.Cor.11.21, Sch.A Il.1.264, 129, 396, 3.280, AP9.530, dub.l. in Str.15.1.57.
H. Etymology: this word is in origin five distinct words: (1) ὡς 'as' is the Adv. fr. the Relat. ὅς (I.-E. stem yo-); with ὡς βέλτιστος cf. Skt. yācchrē[snull ][tnull ]á[hudot ] 'the best possible': (2) ὧς 'thus' is the Adv. of a Demonstr. stem so- found in Skt. sa, Gr. , Lat. sō-c (Gloss. = ita, cf. Umbr. esoc); (3) ὡς postpositive (ὄρνιθες ὥς, etc.) constantly makes a preceding short closed syll. long in Hom., and must therefore have been ϝως; it may perh. be related to Skt. vā, a form of va, iva ( = (1) or (2) like), Lat. ve, Gr. ἦ[ϝ] ε; (4) ὡς prep. 'to' is of doubtful origin (perh. fr. Ω᾿ς, cogn. with Lat. ōs 'face', Skt. ās: Ω῎ς τινα ἐλθεῖν like τί δέ δε φρένας ἵκετο πένθος;); (5) ὡς F.3 is prob. *ϝως, Adv. of ϝός the reflexive Adj., and means lit. in his (their) own way (or place); it is idiomatically placed before ἕκαστος ἑκάτερος), cf. “ϝὸν ϝεκάτεροςLeg.Gort.1.18.
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