A.“Ἀρχ. Ἐφ.” 1931.103 (Nemea, vi B. C.)), declined regul. υἱοῦ, υἱῷ, υἱόν, but in Att. Inscrr. only after 350 B.C. (exc. “υἱός” IG12.529,530, 598, 625; ὑός ib. 585, 828; ὑόνib.70.8), and then always so: —in earlier Att. and other Inscrr. inflected as a υ^-stem (like πῆχυς), nom. υἱύς (written huihus) Klein Vasen mit Meister-signaturen 72 (Brit.Mus.Cat.701) (“ὑύς” IG12.571, 670, 686; contr. ὕς ib.663); gen. υἱέος （“ὑέος” IG22.4883); dat. υἱεῖ: dual “υἱεῖ” Lys.19.46, written ηυιε in IG12.775 (corrupted to υἱέε in Pl.Ap.20a cod. B), υἱέοιν: pl. υἱεῖς （“ὑεῖς” IG12.115.14, al.), υἱέων, υἱέσι (S.Ant.571, Ar. Nu.1001 (anap.)), ὑέ[σιν] (IG12.54.14), υἱεῖς （“ὑεῖς” IG22.1.73): but gen. υἱέως, and acc. υἱέα, υἱέας, which are formed as though from nom. Υἱεύς, are rejected by Phryn.48,49, Thom.Mag.p.367 R., as not Att., though the two latter forms are used by later writers (as “υἱέα” Euph. 5, Arr.Cyn.16, “ὑέα” IG42(1).244.4 (Epid., ii B. C.), but υἱέως is f. l. in Th.1.13, J.AJ18.2.4, etc.): dat. pl. υἱεῦσιν is mentioned as a form that would be regular by Eust.1348.27:—Homer uses nom. υἱός (very freq.); gen. υἱοῦ only in Od.22.238, elsewh. υἱέος; dat. υἱέϊ or υἱεῖ; acc. “υἱέα” Il.13.350 (cf. IGRom.4.360.29 (Pergam., hex.)), elsewh. υἱόν (very freq.): pl., nom. “υἱέες” Il.5.10, al., or “υἱεῖς” Od.15.248, 24.387,497; gen. “υἱῶν” Il.21.587, 22.44, Od.24.223; dat. υἱοῖσι（ν) only Od.19.418, υἱάσι（ν) Il.5.463, al. (never υἱέσι); acc. υἱέας ib.149, al.:— he also uses the shorter forms, gen. υἷος, υἷι, υἷα, dual υἷε (distd. from the voc. sg. υἱέ by the accent), pl. υἷες, υἷας; but these were confined to Ep.: their accentuation (in which codd. agree with Hdn.Gr.1.409) may preserve a trace of their Aeolic origin (v. infr.). The declension υἱῆος, υἱῆϊ, υἱῆα, υἱῆες, υἱήεσσι, υἱῆας (like βασιλῆος, etc., as though from Υἱεύς), belongs solely to later Ep. poets, as A.R.2.1093,1119, Nic.Fr.110, AP9.23 (Antip.), etc. Dialect Inscrr. have the foll. archaic forms, nom. “υἱύς” IG5 (1).720 (Lacon.), Leg.Gort.12.17 (υιυις lapis); acc. “υἱύν” Inscr.Olymp.30, Leg.Gort.10.15; gen. υἱέος ib.6.3, Schwyzer 105 (Methana, vi B. C.); but “υἱοῦ” IG9(1).867 (Corc., vii B. C.); nom. pl. “υἱέες” Leg.Gort.7.25; acc. pl. υἱύνς ib. 4.40, IG12.407 (Cret. or Argive); dat. pl. “υἱάσι” Leg.Gort.4.37 (as in Hom., influenced by θυγατράσι, πατράσι, which have ρα = ṛ, cf. Skt. pitṛ[snull ]u); “ὑέεσσι” IG14.10 (Syrac.); υἷος in SIG55 (Thessaly, v B. C.) is perh. the Aeol. gen. (ὑός is nom. rather than gen. in IG12.828); acc. “ὗα” Schwyzer 625 (Mytil., ii/i B. C.); a nom. ὑϊς (scanned - ^) IG12.472 (Boeotia, vi B. C.), cf. Simon.249 (v. infr.); nom. pl. “ὗες” IG22.3632.24 (hex., Eleusis, ii A. D.). The initial syll. is both υἱ-and ὑ-in Att. Inscrr. down to 400 B.C. (e. g. “ὑεῖς” IG12.115.14, ὑέ[σιν] ib.54.14, ὑόν v. supr.), afterwards ὑ-, but υἱός reappears under the Empire; in Plato cod. A usually has ὑιος, which is found also in T, cod. B always has υἱός, editors restore ὑός; acc. υἱόν is recommended by Phryn. l. c.; in Inscrr. of Pergamon, Magnesia, and Delphi, and in non-literary Papyri, ὑός is at all times less common than υἱός:—ὁ υεἱός CIG (add.) 3857p; dat. υεἱῷ ib.3846z82 (both Phrygia), cf. BCH11.471:—son, Il.6.366, etc.; υἱὸν ποιεῖσθαί τινα to adopt as a son, Aeschin.2.28; υἱεῖς ἄνδρες grown-up sons, D. 25.88: metaph., Κόρον Ὕβριος υἱόν Orac. ap. Hdt.8.77: rarely of animals, Ev.Matt.21.5.
4. freq. in LXX in periphrases (Hebraisms with various meanings), “υἱὸς ἐτῶν ἑκατόν” 100 years old, Ge.11.10, al.; “υἱοὶ ἀδικίας” 2 Ki.7.10; “υἱοὶ θανατώσεως” 1 Ki. 26.16; “υἱοὶ τῶν συμμίζεων” hostages, 4 Ki.14.14; so “υἱὸς εἰρήνης” Ev.Luc.10.6.
5. in some dialects, including the Ion. Prose of Hdt., υἱός is replaced by παῖς: υἱός is rare in Trag., A.Th.609, Fr. 320, E.Or.1689 (anap.), al., and 7 times in S.: Hom. has both words in this sense.
6. as a general term of affection, PGiss.68.2 (ii A. D.), POxy.1219.2 (iii A. D.); υἱέ, an author's address to the reader, LXX Pr.1.8, al.
7. δάμου υἱός, υἱὸς πόλεως, Ἑλλάδος, as titles of honour, SIG804.10 (Cos, i A. D.), 813A,B (Delph., i A. D.), 854 (Eleusis, i A. D.).
8. υἱοὶ ἀνθρώπων sons of men, periphr. for men (cf. supr. 2,4), LXXPs.89(90).3; οἱ υἱοὶ τῶν ἀ. ib.Ge.11.5, Ev.Marc.3.28; “υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου” man, LXXEz.2.1,3, al.; of the Messiah, ib.Da.7.13, Apoc.14.14; used by Jesus of himself, Ev.Matt.8.20, al. (by Stephen recalling the words of Jesus, Act.Ap.7.56).
9. υἱοὶ Θεοῦ sons of God, implying inheritors of the nature of God (cf. supr. 4), Ev.Matt.5.9, cf. 45, Ev.Luc.6.35; implying participants in the glory of God, ib.20.36.
b. of Jesus, τὸ γεννώμενον κληθήσεται υἱὸς Θεοῦ ib. 1.35; ὁ Χριστός, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Ev.Matt.26.63, cf.Ev.Jo.1.34.
c. Θεοῦ υἱός, = Lat. Divi (sc. Caesaris) filius, patronymic of Augustus, BGU543.3 (27 B.C.), PTeb.382.21 (i B. C.), IG12(3).174.2 (Epist. ad Cnidios, 5 A. D.). [Hom.sts. has the first syll. short in nom., voc. and acc. sg., “οὐδὲ Δρύαντος υἱός” Il.6.130; “Ἀμφιτρύωνος υἱός” Od.11.270; “Ποδῆς υἱὸς Ἠετίωνος” Il.17.575, cf. 590; “Ἀνθεμίωνος υἱόν” 4.473; “Σελάγου υἱόν” 5.612; “Ἕκτορ, υἱὲ Πριάμοιο” 7.47; and Πηλῆος υἱός, Μηκιστῆος υἱός seem to be the better readings in 1.489, 2.566: in these places some other form ought perh. to be restored, but none of the known forms has a short υ^: ὑός has υ_ in IG12.585 (vi B. C.), 828 (v B. C.), 2.2338, 22.4319 (both iv B. C.); Simon.l.c. seems to have used a monosyll. nom. υἷς, and Hdn.Gr. may have read it as ὕις （^^), but this is uncertain, as in Sch.Il.5.266 he seems to say that ὕις （υἷις cod.) does not occur.] (Prob. from *sū-yú-s, cf. Skt. sūte 'procreate', Tocharian (A-dial.) se, (B-dial.) soyä 'son'; different suffix in *sū-nu-s, Skt. sūnūs, etc., and in *s[ucaron]-nu-s, OE. sunu, etc. (all = son); *sūyú- perh. became *s[ucaron]wyú-, then *suiwú-; υἱός and υἱόν perh. by dissimilation from υἱύς υἱύν, since the o-stem forms appear first where υ-υ would otherwise be repeated; ὗϊς （ὑΐς̣) may be another dissimilation; the precise origin of υἷος υἷι υἷες etc. is uncertain.)