A.abhitas 'on both sides', Lat. ambi-):—radic. sense, on both sides; chiefly Poet. and Ion. Prose, replaced by περί in later Gk.
A. C. GEN. (Poet., Hdt., X.):
I. causal, about, for the sake of, ἀ. πίδακος μάχεσθαι fight for the possession of a spring, Il.16.285; “ἀ. γυναικός” Pi.P.9.105, A.Ag.62; “ἀ. λέκτρων” E.Andr.123: like πρός, in entreaties, πρὸς Ζηνός . . Φοίβου τ᾽ ἀ. for Phoebus' sake, A.R.2.216.
2. about, concerning, once in Hom., ἀμφ᾽ Ἄρεος φιλότητος ἀείδειν sing of love, Od.8.267; “ἀμφὶ τιμῆς” h.Merc.172 (cf. c. 4); once in Hdt., ἀμφὶ κρίσιος (as v.l. for κρίσι）“ μνηστήρων τοσαῦτα ἐγένετο” 6.131; more freq. in poets, “ἀ. δαιμόνων” Pi.O.1.35, cf. A.Th.1017, E.Supp.642, etc.; prob. l. in S.Ph.554.
II. of Place, about, around, post-Hom., “ἀ. ταύτης τῆς πόλιος” Hdt.8.104; “τὸν ἀ. Λίμνας τρόχον” E.Hipp.1133.
B. C. DAT. (Poet., Ion. and later Prose):
I. of Place, on both sides of, “ἀμφ᾽ ὀχέεσσι” Il.5.723; ἀ. κεφαλῇ, ὤμοισιν, στήθεσσι, ποσσί, about the head, etc., ib.24.163, 3.328, Od.16.174, Il.13.36; “ἄ. δέρᾳ” Sapph.Supp.23.16; ἀμφί οἱ around him, Il.12.396; μοι ἀμφ᾽ αὐτῷ around me, 9.470; like wise “ἀμφὶ περὶ στήθεσσι” Od.11.609:—all round, κρέα ἀμφ᾽ ὀβελοῖσι μεμύκει round, i.e. upon, spits, ib.12.395; “πεπαρμένη ἀμφ᾽ ὀνύχεσσι” Hes.Op.250.
2. more generally, at, by, ἀ. πύλῃσι μάχεσθαι at the gates, Il.12.175; ἀμφὶ [κόρυθι] διατρυφέν smashed on the helmet, 3.362; ἀ. πυρί on the fire, 18.344; ἀμφ᾽ ἐμοί clinging to me, Od.11.423; esp. of falling over one, Il.4.493; of a guardian, over, “φύλακα ἀ. σοι λείψω” S.Aj.562; “ἀ. γούνασι πίπτειν” E.Alc.947.
II. of Time, ἁλίῳ ἀ. ἑνί in compass of one day, Pi. O.13.37.
III. generally, of connexion or association, without distinct notion of place, ἀ. νεκροῖσιν as concerning the dead, Il.7.408; freq. in Pi., ὅσσα δ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ ἀέθλοις as far as concerns games, N.2.17; ἐπ᾽ ἔργοισιν ἀ. τε βουλαῖς in deeds and counsels, Id.P.5.119; in virtue of, “ἀμφὶ σοφίᾳ” 1.12; “ἐμᾷ ἀ. μαχανᾷ” 8.34; “ἀμφ᾽ ἀρετᾷ” 1.80, cf. O.8.42; “σέο ἀμφὶ τρόπῳ” N.1.29; ἀ. ἰατορίᾳ in respect of healing, B.1.39.
IV. causal, about, for the sake of, “ἀμφ᾽ Ἑλένῃ μάχεσθαι” Il.3.70; ἀ. γυναικὶ ἄλγεα πάσχειν ib.157, cf. Luc.D Deor.20.14; “ἀ. τοῖσδε καλχαίνων τέκνοις” E.Heracl.40, cf. Rh.457 (lyr.); “ἀ. δώλῳ μωλίειν” Leg.Gort.1.17; concerning, Od.1.48; “εἰπὼν ἀμφ᾽ Ὀδυσῆϊ” 14.364; “ἀρνεύμενον ἀ. βόεσσι” h.Merc.390; “ἀ. Τειρεσίαο βουλαῖς” Pi.I.7(6).8; “ἕξετ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ ἐμοὶ τροφήν” S.OC1614, cf. El.1144; “ἔρις ἀ. μουσικῇ” Hdt. 6.129; “ἀ. σοι” A.Ag.890; ἀ. τῷ θανάτῳ αὐτῆς λόγος λέγεται about her death it is reported, Hdt.3.32, cf. S.Aj.303; “ἀ. βοῶν ἀγέλαις δόμον αὔξειν” B.9.44.
2. of impulses, ἀ. τάρβει, ἀ. φόβῳ for very fear, A.Ch.547, E.Or.825; “ἀ. θυμῷ” S.Fr.565; “ἀμφ᾽ ὀδύνῃ” A.R.2.96.
C. C. ACC., most freq. in Prose (twice only in Th.):
I. of Place, about, around, mostly with a sense of motion, “ἀ. μιν φᾶρος βάλον” Il.24.588, cf. Od.10.365; “ἀ. βωμίαν ἔπτηξε παστάδα” E.HF 984.
2. generally, by, on, ἀμφ᾽ ἅλα by the sea, Il.1.409; ἀ. ῥέεθρα somewhere by the banks, 2.461; ἀ. περὶ κρήνην somewhere about the fountain, 2.305; ἀ. ἄστυ all about in the city, 11.706; Τάρταρον ἀ. μέγαν somewhere in Tartarus, h.Ap.336, cf. A.Pr.1029; “ἀ. Εὔβοιαν” B.9.34; “ἀ. Θρῄκην” E.Andr.215; ἀ. ψάμαθον somewhere on the sand, S.Aj.1064; ἀ. βωμόν at the altar, E.IT705; “περὶ πίδακας ἀ.” Theoc. 7.142; of motion, to the neighbourhood of, “ἦλθες ἀ. Δωδώνην” A.Pr. 830.
3. of persons grouped about one, οἱ ἀ. Πρίαμον Priam and his train, Il.3.146, cf. 2.417,445; οἱ ἀ. Ξέρξεα his army, Hdt.8.25; but οἱ ἀ. Κορινθίους, οἱ ἀ. Μεγαρέας καὶ Φλειασίους the Corinthians, Megarians, etc., and those next them, Id.9.69: hence Att., οἱ ἀ. Πρωταγόραν the school of Protagoras or even Protagoras himself, Pl. Tht.170c; οἱ ἀ. Εὐθύφρονα Euthyphro's friends, Cra.399e, cf. Th.8.65; of a single person, perh. Pl.Hp.Ma.281c; so in later Prose, as Luc.VH2.18.
4. τὰ ἀ. τι that which concerns a thing, “τὰ ἀ. τὸ ἄριστον” Th.7.40; τὰ ἀ. τὴν δίαιταν domestic arrangements, X.Cyr.8.2.6.
5. causal, about, for the sake of, κλαίειν ἀ. τινα weep about or for one, Il.18.339; μνήσασθαι ἀ. τινα make mention of one, h.Hom. 7.1, cf. Terp.2, Ar.Nu.595; “κελαδέοντι φᾶμαι ἀ. Κινύραν” Pi.P.2.15, cf. I.7(6).9, A.Th.843; “ἀ. νιν γοώμενος” S.Tr.937.
6. ἀ. τι ἔχειν to be occupied about a thing, “ἀ. λιτάν᾽ ἕξομεν” A.Th.101; “ἀ. δεῖπνον εἶχεν” X.Cyr.5.5.44, cf. 5.2.26; “εἶναι ἀμφί τι” 7.1.1; “ἀ. τὰν δαῖσιν” Leg.Gort.5.46.
II. of Time, throughout, for, τὸν λοιπὸν ἀ. βίοτον, τὸν ὅλον ἀ. χρόνον, Pi.O.1.97, 2.30; about, at the time of, during, “ἀ. Πλειάδων δύσιν” A.Ag.826; “ἀ. τὸν χειμῶνα” X.Cyr.8.6.22, etc.
D. POSITION. In poets ἀμφί sts. follows its case, “οἱ δέ μιν ἀμφί” Od.23.46, cf. 10.218, B.17.53; “φρένας ἀ.” Hes.Th.554, Mimn.1.7; but never suffers anastrophe, Hdn.Gr.1.480.
E. WITHOUT CASE, as Adv., about, around, on both or all sides, freq. in Ep., “ῥῆξεν δέ οἱ ἀ. χιτῶνα” Il.13.439; ἀ. δὲ λειμών around is meadow, Od.6.292; so “ἀ. περί” Il.21.10, etc.
F. IN COMPOS.:
I. on both sides, ἀμφίστομος, ἀμφίαλος.
2. on all sides, “ἀμφιβάλλω” 1.3, ἀμφιλαμβάνω, ἀμφιλαφής.
II. causal, for the sake of, ἀμφιμάχομαι, ἀμφιτρομέω.