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λίθος [ι^], ου, (v. infr. 11),
A.stone, Hom., etc.; esp. of the stones thrown by warriors, τρηχὺς λ., λ. ὀκριόεις, Il.5.308, 8.327; also, stonequoit, Od.8.190; “ἑλέσθαι . . ἐκ γαίας λίθονA.Fr.199.4; of building- stones, “λίθοι βασιλικοίPSI4.423.28, PCair.Zen.499.20 (both iii B.C.): prov., “ἐν παντὶ γάρ τοι σκορπίος φρουρεῖ λίθῳS.Fr.37; λίθον ἕψειν 'to lose one's labour', Ar.V.280; also of stupid persons, 'blockheads', “λίθοιId.Nu.1202, cf. Thgn.568, Pl.Hp.Ma.292d, Gal.9.656; λ. τις, οὐ δούλη Herod.6.4; προσηγορεύθη διὰ τὸ μὴ φρονεῖν λ., of Niobe, Philem.101; “ὥσπερ λίθον ζῆνPl.Grg.494a sq.; λίθῳ λαλεῖς prov. of ἀναίσθητοι, Macar.5.61.
2. stone as a substance, opp. wood, flesh, etc., “ἐπεὶ οὔ σφι λ. χρὼς οὐδὲ σίδηροςIl.4.510; λαοὺς δὲ λίθους ποίησε turned into stone, petrified, 24.611, cf. Pl.Smp.198c; so [“νῆα] θεῖναι λ.Od.13.156; as an emblem of hard-heartedness, “σοὶ δ᾽ αἰεὶ κραδίη στερεωτέρη ἐστὶ λίθοιο23.103, cf. Theoc.3.18.
II. λίθος, , twice in Hom., Il.12.287, Od.19.494, just like masc., also in Theoc.7.26, Bion Fr.1.2: later mostly of some special stone, as the magnet is called Μαγνῆτις λ. by E.Fr.567 (but λίθος simply in Democr.11k, Arist.Ph. 267a2, cf. v.l. de An.405a20); also Λυδία λ. by S.Fr.800 (but in B.Fr. 10 J. Λυδία λ. = touchstone); Ἡρακλεία λ. by Pl.Ion533d, Epicur.Fr. 293; so of a touchstone, Pl.Grg.486d; διαφανὴς λ. a piece of crystal used for a burning-glass, Ar.Nu.767, cf. Luc.Alex.21; χυτὴ λ. was perh. a kind of glass, and so an older name for ὕαλος, Epin.1.8 (the same thing as the ἀρτήματα λίθινα χυτά in Hdt.2.69; cf. “τὴν ὕαλον . . ὅσα τε λίθων χυτὰ εἴδη καλεῖταιPl.Ti.61c); λ. = precious stone is fem. in Hp.Nat.Mul.99, IG22.1421.92, 1460.21, but masc. in Hdt.2.44, etc.; in the sense of marble mostly masc., “λευκὸς λ.Id.4.87 (simply “λίθος1.164), S.Fr.330 (λευκοὶ λ. is opp. “πέτρινοι λ.Supp.Epigr.4.446.8 (Didyma)); “Πάριος λ.Pi.N.4.81, Hdt.3.57; “Ταινάριος λ.Str.8.5.7; λ. Θάσιος, Αἰγύπτιος, etc., Paus.1.18.6, etc.; “κογχίτηςId.1.44.6; “κογχυλιάτηςX.An.3.4.10; but “Παρία λ.Theoc.6.38, Luc.Am.13; cf. λυχνίας, -ίτης; πώρινος λ. tufa, Hdt.5.62.
III. grave-stone (fem.), Call.Epigr.8.1.
IV. at Athens, λίθος, , was a name for various blocks of stone used for rostra or platforms, as,
1. the βῆμα (q.v.) of the Pnyx, Ar.Ach.683, Pax 680, Ec.87.
2. another in the ἀγορά used by the κήρυκες, Plu.Sol.8; prob. the same as πρατὴρ λ., on which the auctioneer stood when selling slaves, etc., Poll.3.78, cf. 126.
3. an altar in the ἀγορά, at which the Thesmothetae, arbitrators, and witnesses took their oaths, Philoch.65, D.54.26 (restored from Harp. s.v. λίθος), Arist.Ath.7.1, 55.5, Plu.Sol.25; cf. λιθωμότης.
4. two stones on which litigants stood in the Areopagus, Paus.1.28.5.
V. piece on a draughtboard, Alc.82, Theoc. 6.18, cf. “γραμμή111.1: hence pron., “πάντα λίθον κινεῖνZen.5.63 (who explains it differently).
VI. Medic., stone in the bladder, calculus, Arist.HA519b19, Hp.Morb.4.55, al.
VII. Δία λίθον ὀμνύναι, = Lat. Jovem lapidem jurare, Plb.3.25.6.
VIII. λίθοι χαλάζης hail- stones, LXX Jo.10.11.
IX. λ. οὐ λ. the philosophers' stone, Zos. Alch.p.122 B.
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (44):
    • Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae, 87
    • Aristophanes, Peace, 680
    • Aristophanes, Wasps, 280
    • Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians, 7.1
    • Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians, 55.5
    • Demosthenes, Against Conon, 26
    • Herodotus, Histories, 2.44
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    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.164
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    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.57
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.87
    • Homer, Iliad, 12.287
    • Homer, Iliad, 24.611
    • Homer, Iliad, 4.510
    • Homer, Iliad, 5.308
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    • Homer, Odyssey, 13.156
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    • Homer, Odyssey, 23.103
    • Homer, Odyssey, 8.190
    • Old Testament, Joshua, 10.11
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.18.6
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.28.5
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.44.6
    • Plato, Symposium, 198c
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    • Plato, Timaeus, 61c
    • Strabo, Geography, 8.5.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.4.10
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    • Sophocles, Ichneutae, 330
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    • Aristophanes, Acharnians, 683
    • Aristophanes, Clouds, 1202
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    • Plutarch, Solon, 25
    • Plutarch, Solon, 8
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