A.that, after Verbs of seeing or knowing, thinking or saying; in Hom. freq. strengthd. ὅτι ῥα, and ὅτι δή:—Usage:
I. when ὅτι introduces a statement of fact:
a. in Hom. always with ind., the tense following the same rules as in English, “ἤγγειλ᾽ ὅττι ῥά οἱ πόσις ἔκτοθι μίμνε πυλάων” Il.22.439.
b. in Att., ὅτι takes ind. after primary tenses, ind. or opt. after secondary tenses, e.g. “ἐνδείκνυμαι ὅτι οὐκ ἔστι σοφός” Pl.Ap.23b; “ᾔσθετο ὅτι τὸ Μένωνος στράτευμα ἤδη ἐν Κιλικίᾳ ἦν” X.An.1.2.21, cf. 2.2.15, al.; “ἔλεγον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθῶς αἱ σπονδαὶ γένοιντο” Th.5.61, cf. Pl.Phd.59e, etc.; “ἠπείλησ᾽ ὅτι . . βαδιοίμην” Ar.Pl. 88: the ind. is freq. retained in the same tense which the speaker used or would have used, ἠγγέλθη . . ὅτι Μέγαρα ἀφέστηκε news came that Megara had (lit. has) revolted, Th.1.114; ἀποκρινάμενοι ὅτι πέμψουσι ib.90: sts. opt. and ind. are found in the same sentence, “ἔλεγον, ὅτι Κῦρος μὲν τέθνηκεν, Ἀριαῖος δὲ πεφευγὼς . . εἴη” X.An. 2.1.3; “Περικλῆς . . προηγόρευε . . ὅτι Ἀρχίδαμος μέν οἱ ξένος εἴη . . , τοὺς δ᾽ ἀγροὺς τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ καὶ οἰκίας . . , ἀφίησιν αὐτὰ δημόσια εἶναι” Th. 2.13, cf. Pl.Phd.61b, etc.: also ὅτι . . and the acc. with inf. are found together, Th.3.25, X.Cyr.1.3.13.
2. when ὅτι introduces a conditional sentence, the Constr. after ὅτι is the same as in independent conditional sentences, εἴ τις ἔροιτο, καθ᾽ ὁποίους νόμους δεῖ πολιτεύεσθαι, δῆλον ὅτι ἀποκρίναισθ᾽ ἄν . . it is manifest that you would answer . . , D.46.12, cf. X.Mem.1.6.12.
II. ὅτι is freq. inserted pleon. in introducing a quotation (where we use no Conj. and put inverted commas), λόγον τόνδε ἐκφαίνει ὁ Πρωτεύς, λέγων ὅτι ἐγὼ εἰ μὴ περὶ πολλοῦ ἡγεύμην . . Hdt.2.115; καὶ ἐγὼ εἶπον, ὅ. ἡ αὐτή μοι ἀρχή ἐστι . . Pl.Prt.318a, cf. 356a, 361a, etc.; even where the quotation consists of one word, ib.330c, Men.74b, 74c.
2. ὅ. is also used pleon. with the inf. and acc. (cf. “ὡς” B. I.I), εἶπον ὅτι πρῶτον ἐμὲ χρῆναι πειραθῆναι κατ᾽ ἐμαυτόν (which is in fact a mixture of two constrr.) Id.Lg. 892d, cf. Phd.63c, X.HG2.2.2, etc.; but ὅτι has freq. been wrongly inserted by the copyists, as if εἶπεν or λέγουσιν must be followed by it, as in Th.4.37 (om. Pap.), X.Cyr.5.4.1, etc.
III. ὅτι in Att. freq. represents a whole sentence, esp. in affirm. answers, οὐκοῦν . . τὸ ἀδικεῖν κάκιον ἂν εἴη τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι. Answ. δῆλον δὴ ὅτι (i.e. ὅτι κάκιον ἂν εἴη, or ὅτι ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχει) Pl.Grg.475c; cf. οἶδ᾽ ὅτι, ἴσθ᾽ ὅτι, οἶσθ᾽ ὅτι, S.Ant.276, 758, Pl.Grg.486a, etc.: hence arose the practice of using δηλονότι (q.v.) as Adv.
2. what we make the subject of the Verb which follows ὅτι freq. stands in the preceding clause, Αυκάονας δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ εἴδομεν, ὅτι . . καρποῦνται (for εἴδομεν, ὅτι Λυκάονες καρποῦνται) X.An.3.2.23, cf. 3.2.29, etc.
IV. ὅτι sts.= with regard to the fact that, “ὅτι . . οὔ φησι . . ὄνομα εἶναι, ὑποπτεύω αὐτὸν σκώπτειν” Pl.Cra.384c, cf. Prt.330e, etc.
V. οὐχ ὅ. . . , ἀλλὰ or “ἀλλὰ καὶ . . , οὐχ ὅ. ὁ Κρίτων ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ ἦν, ἀλλὰ οἱ φίλοι αὐτοῦ” not only Crito . . , but his friends, X.Mem.2.9.8; more fully, “οὐ μόνον ὅ. ἄνδρες, ἀλλὰ καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες” Pl.Smp.179b: so folld. by ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ . . , ταύτῃ ἀδύνατα ἐξισοῦσθαι οὐχ ὅ. τὰ ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ not only the powers in Europe, but . . , Th.2.97: οὐχ ὅ., not folld. by a second clause, means although, “οὐχ ὅ. παίζει καί φησι” Pl.Prt.336d, cf. Grg.450e, Tht.157b; cf. “ὅπως” A. II. 2.
B. as a causal Particle, for that, because, generally after Verbs of feeling, Il.1.56, 14.407, al.; “οὐδὲν ἐκπλαγείς, ὅτι . . εἶδες” Jul.Or.1.31a: but without such a Verb, “ὃν περὶ πάσης τῖεν ὁμηλικίης, ὅτι οἱ φρεσὶν ἄρτια ᾔδη” Il.5.326, cf. 9.76, al.; “μάλιστα δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἐπεκαλέσαντο ὅτι τειχομαχεῖν ἐδόκουν δυνατοὶ εἶναι” Th.1.102, cf. And.1.75, Aeschin.3.231; so “ὅτιπερ” Th.4.14.
b. folld. by τί, ὅτι τί; why? (lit. because why?) D.23.214; ὅτι τί δή; Ar.Pl.136, Luc.Dem.Enc.22; ὅτι δὴ τί μάλιστα; Pl.R.343a; ὅτι δὴ τί γε; Id.Chrm.161c; cf. ὁτιή.
2. seeing that, in giving the reason for saying what is said, γλαυκὴ δέ σε τίκτε θάλασσα . . ὅτι τοι νόος ἐστὶν ἀπηνής as is proved by the fact that . . , Il.16.35, cf. 21.488, Od.22.36. [The last syll. is never elided in Att., prob. to avoid confusion with ὅτε: in Hom. ὅτ᾽ （ὅ τ᾽) prob. always represents ὅτε （ὅ τε): there are no examples of ὅττ᾽: hiatus after ὅτι is permitted in Com., Ar.Lys.611, Ach.516.]