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Perseus.down, downwards, with gen. or acc.
prep. with gen. or acc. Radical sense down, downwards.
I.denoting motion from above, down from, βῆ δὲ κατ᾽ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων Il., etc.
II.denoting downward motion,
1.down upon or over, κατὰ χθονὸς ὄμματα πήξας Il.; of the dying, κατ᾽ ὀφθαλμῶν κέχυτ᾽ ἀχλύς a cloud settled upon the eyes, id=Il.; so, ὕδωρ κατὰ χειρός, v. χείρ II. 6.
3.εὔχεσθαι or ὀμόσαι κατά τινος to vow or swear by a thing (because one calls down the vengeance of the gods upon it), Thuc., Dem.:—also to make a vow towards something, i. e. make a vow of offering it, Ar. hostile sense, against, Aesch., etc.; esp. of judges giving sentence against a person, id=Aesch.; λόγος κατά τινος a speech against one accused, Lat. in aliquem; λόγος πρός τινα an answer to an opponent, Lat. adversus aliquem.
5.Lat. de, upon, in respect of, concerning, σκοπεῖν κατά τινος Plat.; ἔπαινος κατά τινος praise bestowed upon one, Aeschin., etc.
I.of motion downwards, κατὰ ῥόον down stream, Hdt.; κατ᾽ οὖρον ἰέναι, ῥεῖν to sail down (i. e. with) the wind, Aesch.
2.of motion, on, over, throughout a space, Hom., etc.; καθ᾽ Ἑλλάδα Aesch.; κατὰ γῆν καὶ θάλασσαν by land and sea, etc.: —also to hit upon the shield, Il.
3.opposite, over against, κατὰ Σινώπην πόλιν Hdt.; ἀνὴρ κατ᾽ ἄνδρα Aesch.
4.κατὰ τὸ προάστειον somewhere in the suburb, Hdt.
II.distributively, of a whole divided into parts, κατὰ φῦλα, κατὰ φρήτρας by tribes, by clans, Il.; κατὰ κώμας κατῳκῆσθαι to live in separate villages, Hdt.; κατ᾽ ἄνδρα man by man, id=Hdt. of parts of Time, καθ᾽ ἡμέραν, κατ᾽ ἦμαρ day by day, daily, v. ἡμέρα III, ἦμαρ.
3.of numbers, by so many at a time, καθ᾽ ἕνα one at a time, Hdt.; κατὰ τὰς πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι μνᾶς πεντακοσίας δραχμὰς εἰσφέρειν to pay 500 drachmae on every 25 minae, Dem., etc.
III.of direction towards an object, πλεῖν κατὰ πρῆξιν on a business, for or after, Od.; κατὰ ληΐην in quest of booty, Hdt.; κατὰ θέαν ἥκειν to have come for the purpose of seeing, Thuc.
2.of pursuit, κατ᾽ ἴχνος on the track, Soph.
IV.according to, κατὰ θυμόν Hom.; καθ᾽ ἡμέτερον νόον after our liking, Il.; κατὰ μοῖραν as is meet and right, Hom.; so, κατ᾽ αἶσαν, κατὰ κόσμον id=Hom.; καθ᾽ ἡδονήν so as to please, Aesch.; κατὰ δύναμιν to the best of one's power, et. relation to, concerning, τὰ κατ᾽ ἀνθρώπους τὰ ἀνθρώπινα, Aesch.; so, τὸ καθ᾽ ὑμᾶς as far as concerns you, Hdt.; κατὰ τοῦτο according to this way, in this view; κατὰ ταὐτά in the same way, καθ᾽ ὅτι so far as, etc.
3.implying comparison, κατὰ λοπὸν κρομύοιο like the coat of a leek, Od.; κατὰ Μιθραδάτην answering to the description of him, Hdt.; κατὰ πνιγέα very like an oven, Ar.; κηδεῦσαι καθ᾽ ἑαυτόν to marry in one's own rank of life, Aesch.; κατ᾽ ἄνθρωπον like a man, as befits a man, id=Aesch.; κατ᾽ ἄνδρα, μὴ θεόν id=Aesch.:—after a comp., μείζων κατ᾽ ἀνθρώπου greater than befits a man, Hdt.; μείζω κατὰ δάκρυα too great to weep for, Thuc. the favour of a god, κατὰ δαίμονα, Lat. non sine numine, Pind.; κατὰ θεόν Hdt.
VI.of loosely stated numbers, nearly, about, κατὰ ἑξηκόσια ἔτεα 600 years more or less, id=Hdt.
VII.of Time, during, sometime in a period, κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον in the course of the war, id=Hdt.; καθ᾽ ἡμέραν by day, Aesch.
VIII.used periphr. for Adverbs, as, καθ᾽ ἡσυχίην, κατὰ τάχος, etc., for ἡσύχως, ταχέως, id=Hdt.; κατὰ μέρος partially; κατὰ φύσιν naturally; etc.
C.Position: when κατά follows its case it is written with anastr. κάτα.
D.absol. as adv. like κάτω, downwards, Hom.
E.κατά in Compos.,
I.downwards, down, as in καταβαίνω. answer to, in accordance with, as in κατᾴδω, καταθύμιος.
III.against, in hostile sense, as καταγιγνώσκω, κατακρίνω.
IV.often only to strengthen the notion of the simple word, as κατακόπτω, καταφαγεῖν.
F.κατά as a prep. was sometimes shortened, esp. in epic into κάγ, κάκ, κάμ, κάν, κάπ, κάρ, κάτ, before γ, κ, μ, ν, π (or φ), , τ (or θ), respectively; see these forms in their own places. Mss. and the older Edd. join the prep. with the following word, as καγγόνυ, καδδέ, κακκεφαλῆς, καππεδίον, καπφάλαρα, καρρόον, καττάδε, καττόν, etc. In compd. Verbs, κατά sometimes changes into καβ, καλ, καρ, κατ, before β, λ, ρ, θ, respectively, as κάββαλε, κάτθανε, κάλλιπε, καρρέζουσα; and before στ, σχ, the second syll. sometimes disappears, as in καστορνῦσα, κάσχεθε, κασσύω, as also in Doric forms καβαίνων, κάπετον.

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