, is the negative of thought
, as οὐ
, i. e. μή
says that one thinks a thing is not
, οὐ that it is not.
The same differences hold for all compds. of μή
in INDEPENDENT sentences,
with Opt. to express a wish that a thing may not happen, ἃ μὴ κραίνοι τύχη
which may fortune not
bring to pass, Aesch.
:—also in wishes that refer to past time and therefore cannot be fulfilled, μή ποτ᾽ ὤφελον λιπεῖν Soph.
B.In DEPENDENT clauses:
with Final Conjunctions, ἵνα μή, ὅπως μή, ὥς μή, ὄφρα
, that not
, Lat. ne
, attic:— μή
often stands alone = ἵνα μή
in the protasis of conditional sentences, after εἰ
), εἴ κε
), εἰ ἄν, ἤν, ἐάν, ἄ_ν
, Lat. nisi
, etc.;—so, ὅτε μή ῀ εἰ μή
4.with Inf., always except when the Inf. represents Ind. or Opt., as in oratio obliqua.
after Verbs expressing fear
(cf. μὴ οὐ
a.when the thing feared is fut., with pres. Subj., I fear he may persuade thee, Il.
b.with Opt. for Subj., according to the sequence of moods and tenses, Hom., etc.
when the action is present or past, the Ind. is used, φοβούμεθα μὴ ἡμαρτήκαμεν
we fear we have made a mistake, Thuc.
with Ind., implying a negat. answer, surely not, you don't mean to say that
, Lat. num?
whereas with οὐ
an affirm. answer is expected, Lat. nonne? ἆρ᾽ οὐ τέθνηκε
; surely he is dead, is he not? ἆρα μὴ τέθνηκε
; surely he is not dead, is he?
appear in consecutive clauses, each negat. retains its proper force, οὐ σῖγ᾽ ἀνέξει μηδὲ δειλίαν ἀρεῖς
; will you not be
silent, and will you be
cowardly? i. e. be silent and be not cowardly, Soph.
with the Subj., when the answer is somewhat doubtful, μὴ οὕτω φῶμεν
; can we say so? Plat.
:—so also with Opt. and ἄν, πῶς ἄν τις μὴ λέγοι
; how can a man help