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not, is the negative of thought, as οὐ of statement, i. e. μή says that one thinks a thing is not, οὐ that it is not. The same differences hold for all compds. of μή and οὐ.
A.μή in INDEPENDENT sentences,
1.with Imperat., μή μ᾽ ἐρέθιζε do not provoke me, Il.; μή τις ἀκουσάτω let not any one hear, Od.
2.with Subj. μὴ δή μ᾽ ἐάσῃς Il.; μὴ ἴομεν (epic for ἴωμεν) id=Il.; μὴ πάθωμεν Xen.
3.with Opt. to express a wish that a thing may not happen, μὴ κραίνοι τύχη which may fortune not bring to pass, Aesch.:—also in wishes that refer to past time and therefore cannot be fulfilled, μή ποτ᾽ ὤφελον λιπεῖν Soph. vows and oaths, where οὐ might be expected, ἴστω Ζεὺς μὴ μὲν τοῖς ἵπποισιν ἀνὴρ ἐποχήσεται ἄλλος Zeus be my witness, not another man shall ride on these horses, Il.; μὰ τὴν Ἀφροδίτην, μὴ ἐγώ σ᾽ ἀφήσω Ar.
B.In DEPENDENT clauses:
1.with Final Conjunctions, ἵνα μή, ὅπως μή, ὥς μή, ὄφρα, that not, Lat. ne, Il., attic:— μή often stands alone = ἵνα μή, Hom., attic the protasis of conditional sentences, after εἰ (epic αἰ), εἴ κε (αἴ κε), εἰ ἄν, ἤν, ἐάν, ἄ_ν, Lat. nisi, Hom., etc.;—so, ὅτε μή εἰ μή; etc. relat. clauses, when they imply a condition or supposition, λέγονθ᾽ μὴ δεῖ such things as one ought not, Soph.; λόγοις τοιούτοις οἷς σὺ μὴ τέρψει κλύων id=Soph.
4.with Inf., always except when the Inf. represents Ind. or Opt., as in oratio obliqua.
5.with Participle, when it can be resolved into a conditional clause, μὴ ἀπενείκας εἰ μὴ ἀπήνεικε Hdt.; μὴ θέλων εἰ μὴ θέλεις, Aesch.; so in a general sense, δίδασκέ μ᾽ ὡς μὴ εἰδότα = ut qui nihil sciam, Soph.
6.with abstract Nouns as with Partic., τὰ μὴ δίκαια ἂν μὴ δίκαια, Aesch.; τὸ μὴ καλόν Soph.; μὴ 'μπειρία τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ἐμπειρίαν, want of experience, Ar.
7.after Verbs expressing fear or apprehension (cf. μὴ οὐ):
a.when the thing feared is fut., with pres. Subj., I fear he may persuade thee, Il.
b.with Opt. for Subj., according to the sequence of moods and tenses, Hom., etc.
c.when the action is present or past, the Ind. is used, φοβούμεθα μὴ ἡμαρτήκαμεν we fear we have made a mistake, Thuc.
8.without a Verb to express hesitation, perhaps, μὴ ἀγροικότερον τὸ ἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν Plat.
I.Direct questions,
a.with Ind., implying a negat. answer, surely not, you don't mean to say that, Lat. num? whereas with οὐ an affirm. answer is expected, Lat. nonne? ἆρ᾽ οὐ τέθνηκε; surely he is dead, is he not? ἆρα μὴ τέθνηκε; surely he is not dead, is he?:—when οὐ and μή appear in consecutive clauses, each negat. retains its proper force, οὐ σῖγ᾽ ἀνέξει μηδὲ δειλίαν ἀρεῖς; will you not be silent, and will you be cowardly? i. e. be silent and be not cowardly, Soph.
b.with the Subj., when the answer is somewhat doubtful, μὴ οὕτω φῶμεν; can we say so? Plat.:—so also with Opt. and ἄν, πῶς ἄν τις μὴ λέγοι; how can a man help speaking? id=Plat.
II.indirect questions with μή belong in fact to μή with Verbs of fear and apprehension, περισκοπῶ μή πού τις ἐγχρίμπτῃ Soph.

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