B.the definite Article.
in epic, the relative Pronoun, when it is written with the accent ὅ, ἥ, τό ῀ ὅς, ἥ, ὅ.
Besides the common forms, note epic gen. sg. τοῖο
; pl. nom. τοί, ταί
; gen. fem. τάων [α^]
, dat. τοῖσι, τῇς
; dual gen, and dat. τοῖιν
:— in Trag.
we find τοὶ μέν . . , τοὶ δέ . .
, for οἱ μέν . . , οἱ δέ . .
; dat. pl. also τοῖσι, ταῖσι
: the dual has commonly but one gender, τώ
for τά, τοῖν
joined with a Subst., not as the Art., but like Lat. ille
, ὁ Τυδείδης
; Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων
aged man, id=Il.
; τιμῆς τῆς Πριάμου
for honour, namely that
of Priam, id=Il.
without a Subst., he, she, it
, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε id=Il.
2.ὁ μέν . . , ὁ δέ . .
, either in Opposition, ὁ μέν the former
, ὁ δέ the latter)
, or in Partition, the one . . , the other . .
, Lat. hic . . , ille . . .
IV.absolute usages of single cases,
fem. dat. τῇ
, there, on that spot
; τὸ μὲν τῇ, τὸ δὲ τῇ Xen.
:—with a notion of motion towards, thither
of Manner, τῇπερ in this way, thus
; τῇ μέν . . , τῇ δέ . .
, in one way . . , in another . .
, or partly . . , partly
, for ᾗ
neut. gen. τοῦ
neut. dat. τῷ
b.thus, in this wise, then, if this be so, on this condition, Hom.
neut. acc. wherefore
; τὸ δέ
, absol., but as to this . .
5.τὸ μέν . . , τὸ δέ . .
, partly . . , partly . .
, or on the one hand . . , on the other . .
, attic; τὰ μέν . . , τὰ δέ . .
; also, τὰ μέν τι . . , τὰ δέ τι . .
with Prepositions, of Time, ἐκ τοῦ
, epic τοῖο
, ever since
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, the
, the indefin. being τὶς, τὶ
The use of as the Article sprung from its use as demonstr. Pron., τὸν ὀπίστατον him that was hindmost
, i.e. the hindmost man
; τὸν ἄριστον him that was
bravest, etc.;— also with Advs. τὸ πρίν, τὸ πάρος περ, τὸ πρόσθεν, τὸ τρίτον, τὰ πρῶτα
all in Il.
the true Article is first fully established in attic: it is omitted with prop. names and with appellatives which require no specification, as θεός, βασιλεύς
:—but it is added to Prop. Names, when there has been previous mention of the person, as Thuc.
speaks first of Πειθίας
, and then refers to him as ὁ Π.
; or to give pecul. emphasis, like Lat. ille
, ὁ Λάϊος, ὁ Φοῖβος Soph.
with Infinitives, which thereby become Substantives, τὸ εἶναι the
being; τὸ φρονεῖν
good sense, etc.
before the pers. Pron., to give them greater emphasis, but only in acc., τὸν ἐμέ, τὸν σὲ καὶ ἐμέ Plat.
before the interrog., to make the question more precise, τὸ τί
, etc.; τὰ ποῖα
before the gen. of a prop. n., to express descent, ὁ Διός
) ἡ Λητοῦς
) often in attic; but sometimes, as appears from the context, to denote husband, brother, friend, wife:—
then before a gen. it indicates all general relations, as, τὰ τῆς πόλεως all that concerns
the state; τὰ τῶν Ἀθηναίων φρονεῖν
to hold with the Athenians, be on their side, Hdt.
:—so with neut. of possess. Pron., τὸ ἐμόν, τὸ σόν what regards
me or thee, my or thy business. But τὸ τινος
is often also, a man's saying
, as, τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνος Hdt.
4.πορεύεσθαι τὴν ἔξω τείχους
; κρίνασθαι τὴν ἐπὶθάνατον
, v. θάνατος
I. 2; ἡ αὔριον
morrow: —also with Advs., which thus take an Adject. sense, as, τὸ νῦν the
present; οἱ τότε ἄνθρωποι the
men of that time, also οἱ τότε, οἱ νῦν
, etc.; τὸ πρίν formerly; τὸ πρόσθεν, τὸ πρῶτον
, etc.; τὸ ἀπὸ τούτου, τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε
from the present time, etc.
CRASIS OF ART.: —in Trag.
, as ἁνήρ, ἅνθρωπος, ἁλήθεια, ἁρετή, τἀγαθόν, τἀδικεῖν, τᾁτιον
; so, οἱ, αἱ, τά
, as ἅνδρες, ἅνθρωποι, τἀγαθά, τἀκίνητα
; also τοῦ, τῷ
, as τάγαθοῦ, τἀγαθῷ: —ὁ, οἱ
, with ε
become ου, οὑξ, οὑπί, οὑμός, τοὔργον, οὑπιχώριοι
, etc.; also τοῦ
, as τοὐμοῦ, τοὐπιόντος
; but in one case α_, ἅτερος, θἄτερον
, for οὔτερος
(which is ionic); τῷ
remains unchanged, τὠμῷ, τὠπιόντι
becomes α_, ἁτέρα
: —ὁ, τό
, as Οὕλυμπιος, τοὔνομα
, etc., before αυ
donot change the diphthong, αὑτός, ταὐτό, ταὐτῷ
; so, τὰ αὐτά ῀ ταὐτά, αἱ αὐταί ῀ αὑταί
, as ηὑλάβεια
, as θἠμέρα
, as θοὔδωρ
for τὸ ὕδωρ.