A.in early Greek only as Dep.
absol. to work hard, do work, suffer toil
; περὶ δόρπα πονέοντο were busied
about their supper, Il.
; so, πεπόνητο καθ᾽ ἵππους was busy
with the horses, of a charioteer, id=Il.
2.metaph. to be in distress, to distress oneself, id=Il.:— to suffer, be sick, Thuc.
II.c. acc. to work hard at, to make or do with pains or care, Hom., Hes.
B.after Hom., the act. form prevails
intr. to toil, labour
, attic; μάτην π. to labour
in vain, Soph.
; c. acc., τὰ μηδὲν ὠφελοῦντα μὴ πόνει do
not labour at things that profit not, Aesch.
3.absol. to labour, be hard-pressed, suffer, Thuc., Xen.: to be worn out, spoilt, Dem.
1.c. acc. pers. to afflict, distress, Pind.:—Pass. to be worn out, to suffer greatly, Soph., Thuc.
b.Pass., also, to be trained or educated, Arist., Theocr.
c. acc. rei, like ἐκπονεῖν
, to gain by toil
, χρήματα Xen.
: Pass. to be won
or achieved by toil