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χαλκός 1

I.copper, Lat. aes, Hom., etc.; called in reference to its colour, ἐρυθρός, Il.:—copper was the first metal wrought for use, τοῖς δ᾽ ἦν χάλκεα μὲν τεύχη χάλκεοι δέ τε οἶκοι, χαλκῷ δ᾽ ἐργάζοντο, μέλας δ᾽ οὐκ ἔσκε σίδηρος Hes.:—hence χαλκός came to be used for metal in general; and, when men learnt to work iron, χαλκός was used for σίδηρος, and χαλκεύς came to mean a blacksmith. χαλκός also meant bronze (i. e. copper alloyed with tin), not brass (i. e. copper alloyed with zinc, which was a later invention), and this was its sense when applied to arms.
II.anything made of brass or metal, as a spear, sword, knife, etc., Il.; χαλκὸν ζώννυσθαι of a warrior girding on his armour, id=Il., etc.
2.of vessels, a copper, caldron, urn, Hom., etc.
3.of a brasen mirror, Anth.
4.a copper coin, like χαλκοῦς II, id=Anth.

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