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ămīcus , i, m. from amo, as φίλος from φιλέω, and from (
I.gen. plur. amicūm, Ter. Heaut. prol. 24).
A. A friend; constr. with gen. or poss. adj.; v. Zumpt, Gram. § “410: est is (amicus) tamquam alter idem,Cic. Am. 21, 80 (cf. id. ib. 25, 92; id. Off. 1, 17): “amicum qui intuetur, tamquam exemplar intuetur sui,id. Am. 7, 23: “Non tam utilitas parta per amicum, quam amici amor ipse delectat,id. ib. 14, 51: Amicus certus in re incertā cernitur, Enn. ap. Cic. ib. 17, 64: “boni improbis, improbi bonis amici esse non possunt,Cic. ib. 20, 74: “ex omnibus saeculis vix tria aut quattuor nominantur paria amicorum,id. ib. 4, 15: “tu ex amicis certis mi es certissimus,Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 54 and 57: “vetus verbum hoc est, Communia esse amicorum inter se omnia,Ter. Ad. 5, 4, 18: “Respicis antiquum lassis in rebus amicum,Ov. P. 2, 3, 93: “Alba tuus antiquissimus non solum amicus, verum etiam amator,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 63 fin.: “hospitis et amici mei M. Pacuvii fabula,id. Am. 7, 24: “suis incommodis graviter angi non amicum sed se ipsum amantis est,of one loving not his friend, but himself, id. ib. 3, 10: “ab amicis honesta petere, amicorum causā honesta facere,id. ib. 13, 44: “paternus amicus ac pernecessarius,id. Fl. 6, 14: “amicus novus,id. Am. 19, 67: “vetus,id. ib.; Verg. A. 3, 82; Hor. S. 2, 6, 81; Ov. P. 1, 6, 53: “amici ac familiares veteres,Suet. Tib. 55: “aequaevus,Verg. A. 5, 452: “ardens,id. ib. 9, 198: “dulcis,Hor. S. 1, 3, 69; Ov. P. 1, 8, 31: “carus,Hor. C. 4, 9, 51; Ov. Tr. 3, 6, 7: “jucundus,Hor. S. 1, 3, 93: “amici jucundissimi et omnium horarum,Suet. Tib. 42: “amicus propior,Hor. Ep. 1, 9, 5: “fidelis,id. ib. 2, 2, 1; Vulg. Eccli. 6, 14: “fidus,Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 24: “verus,Cic. Am. 21, 82; Vulg. Eccli. 25, 12: “mendax,Hor. A. P. 425: “secernere blandum amicum a vero,Cic. Am. 25, 95: “memor,Ov. Tr. 5, 9, 33: “summus,Ter. Phorm. 1, 1, 1: “primus,Vulg. 1 Macc. 10, 65: “amici tristes,Hor. C. 1, 7, 24: “maesti,Ov. Tr. 1, 9, 5: “dives,Hor. Ep. 1, 8, 24: “inops,id. S. 1, 2, 5: “inferioris ordinis amici,Cic. Am. 19, 69: “communes amici,Cic. Fam. 5, 2: “amice, salve!Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 12; so Cat. 55, 7; Verg. A. 6, 507; Hor. C. 2, 14, 6; and Vulg. Matt. 20, 13: “magnanimi veritatis amici,Cic. Off. 1, 19: “amicos parare,Ter. And. 1, 1, 39: “amicos parare optimam vitae, ut ita dicam, supellectilem,Cic. Am. 15, 55: “minus amicorum habens,Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 22: “me unum atque unicum amicum habuit,Cat. 73, 6; “amicos habere,Cic. Am. 11, 36; so Vulg. Prov. 22, 11: “nos sibi amicos junget,Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 32; Hor. S. 1, 3, 54: “amicum servare,id. ib.: “amicum servare per durum tempus,Ov. P. 2, 6, 29: “aliquo uti amico,to have one as a friend, Cic. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Hor. S. 1, 4, 96: “sibi amicum facere,Vulg. Luc. 16, 9: “amicum diligere,Verg. A. 9, 430; Vulg. Deut. 13, 6: “amico inservire,Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 8: “amico parcere,Hor. S. 1, 4, 35: “et monendi amici saepe sunt et objurgandi,Cic. Am. 24, 88: “amico ignoscere,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 110: “angorem pro amico capere,Cic. Am. 13, 48: “amici jacentem animum excitare,id. ib. 16, 59: “amicum consolari,Ov. Tr. 5, 4, 41: “amico orbatus,Cic. Am. 3, 10: “amicum offendere,Hor. S. 1, 3, 73: “non paucis munitus amicis,Ov. P. 2, 3, 25.—Also for patronus, patron, protector; so Horace of Mæcenas, Epod. 1, 2: “amicus potens,powerful friend, id. C. 2, 18, 12; so, “magnus,Juv. 3, 57; 6, 313: Suet. Aug. 56: “valentissimi,id. ib. 35.—And for socius, companion: “trepido fugam exprobravit amico,Ov. M. 13, 69.—
B. In polit. relations, a friend of the State (who was not always socius, an ally, but the socius was always amicus; cf. “amicitia): Deiotarus ex animo amicus, unus fidelis populo Romano,Cic. Phil. 11, 13: “socio atque amico regi,Liv. 37, 54; 7, 30 et saep.; Suet. Caes. 11.—
C. In and after the Aug. per., a counsellor, courtier, minister of a prince, Nep. Milt. 3, 2 Dähn.: “fuerunt multi reges ex amicis Alexandri Magni,id. Reg. 3, 1; so Suet. Caes. 70, 72; 70, 79; id. Aug. 16; 17; 35; 56; 66; id. Calig. 19; id. Ner. 5; id. Galb. 7 al.; cf. Ernest. ad Suet. Excurs. XV.—Hence, ămī-ca , ae, f.
A. In bon. part., a female friend (very rare; cf. ἑταίρα in Hom., Aristoph., Plato): “amicae, cognatae,Ter. Hec. 4, 2, 16: “at haec amicae erunt, ubi, etc.,id. ib. 5, 2, 24: “Me (laedit) soror et cum quae dormit amica simul,Prop. 2, 6, 12: “ibit ad adfectam, quae non languebit, amicam Visere,Ov. Am. 2, 2, 21; cf. Juv. 3, 12; 6, 353; 6, 455; 6, 481; so Inscr. Grut. 865, 17; 891, 4. —
B. In mal. part., = meretrix, a concubine, mistress, courtesan (esp. freq. in the comic poets; so in Gr. ἑταίρα com. in Att. usage): eum suus pater ab amicā abduxit, Naev. ap. Gell. 6, 8: “mulierem pejorem quam haec amica est Phaedromi non vidi,Plaut. Curc. 5, 1, 3; so id. Trin. 3, 2, 25; 3, 4, 22; id. Cist. 2, 3, 28; id. Ep. 5, 2, 36; 5, 2, 39 al.: “sive ista uxor sive amica est,Ter. And. 1, 3, 11; id. Heaut. 1, 1, 52; 1, 2, 15; 3, 3, 6; 4, 6, 15 et saep.; Cic. Att. 10, 10; Dig. 50, 16, 144.
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