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bŏnum , i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus , ōris, n.; optĭmum , i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
1. Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus; “nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.: “quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,id. Par. 1, 1, 9: “ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,id. Ac. 1, 2, 7: “non-est igitur voluptas bonum,id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (τέλος ἀγαθῶν) = summa bona et mala: “sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
2. Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally: “quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9: “multa bona vobis volt facere,will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32: “tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,id. Capt. 1, 2, 33: “multa tibi di dent bona,id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47: “omnia Bona dicere,to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70: “sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88: “cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,id. ib. 5, 41, 120: “nihil enim boni nosti,nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16: “mala pro bonis legere dementia est,Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73: “quia bonum sit valere,a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra): “melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,id. Lael. 6, 20: “meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,id. Or. 1, 10, 43: “optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere; “v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere (poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632: “ad melius transcurrere,to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
6. With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair (thing), fairness, equity: “si bonum aequomque oras,Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11: “si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39: “a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in (with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere: “istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
7. Bona, one's property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
b. Bonorum possessio, the possession of one's property by another.
(α). Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one's property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
(β). Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4: “postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8: “edixit ... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,Liv. 2, 24, 6: “bona proscribere,to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
(γ). Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
c. In bonis esse; “with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10: “neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
III. Predicative use.
A. With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
2. To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations: “jam istuc non bonumst,Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157: “oleum viridius et melius fiet,id. ib. 3: “vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156: “quid est homini salute melius?Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127: “non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,id. Trin. 2, 3, 1: “quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99: “in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36: “meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,Liv. 2, 51, 3: “parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191: “si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula: “quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54; “3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50; “and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
4. With reference to the gods: “ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129: “Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
B. Impers.
1. Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
(α). Without a subject: “bonum sit!may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
2. Melius est.
(δ). With subjectclause in the subjunctive: “nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
3. Optimum est.
(α). With subject inf.: “optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,Liv. 23, 34, 8: “si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
(β). With inf.-clause: “constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
(δ). With quod: “illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51: “optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—(ε) With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant): “sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16: “optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,Caes. B. G. 4, 30: “optumum factu credens exercitum augere,Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
IV. Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full: “di melius duint,Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16: “di meliora velint!Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.: “di meliora! inquit,Cic. Sen. 14, 47: “id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513; “similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
V. With object expressed,
1. By dat.
(β). = benignus or propitius, kind to: “vicinis bonus esto,Cato, R. R. 4: “bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3: “vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,Verg. A. 12, 647.—
(γ). = idoneus, fit for, adapted to: “qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,Cato, R. R. 6: “tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,id. ib. 26: “terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
(δ). With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him: “accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13: “bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is: “quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35: “cui bono fuisset,id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf. “ellipt. form cui bono?Prisc. p. 1208 P.—(ε) With dat. gerund: “ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24: “(mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
2. By ad and acc.: “refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,Varr. R. R. 1, 91: “occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7: “non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,Tac. A. 2, 14.
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