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brĕvis , e, adj. (abl. breve, Varr. R. R. 2, 3, 2;
I.comp. abl. breviore, Ov. Am. 2, 17, 22) [cf. βραχύς, Fest. p. 26], short, little, of small extent, in space and time (opp. longus; in space, in good class. prose, diff. from parvus, which designates that which fills a small space in length, breadth, and thickness; while brevis is used only of length in its different directions of breadth, height, or depth; and even of a circle, as merely a line, and without reference to the space enclosed, v. infra. In poets and postAug. prose brevis sometimes = parvus).
I. Lit., in space.
A. In distance, extent, short, little, small, narrow (opp. latus), Cic. Ac. 2, 29, 92: “brevior via,Nep. Eum. 8, 5; Tib. 1, 10, 4: “via brevis,Verg. E. 9, 23; Ov. M. 5, 253; Juv. 14, 223: “cursus brevissimus,Verg. A. 3, 507: “brevius iter,Ov. P. 1, 4, 32: “cursu brevissimus Almo,id. M. 14, 329: “quid mihi, quod lato non separor aequore, prodest? Num minus haec nobis tam brevis obstat aqua?so narrow a stream, id. H. 18, 174; cf. “also brevis unda, opp. latum mare,id. ib. 19, 141 and 142: “non Asiam brevioris aquae disterminat usquam fluctus ab Europā,Luc. 9, 957 (strictioris, Schol.); cf. id. 9, 317: “brevissima terra,Plin. Ep. 10, 69, 2: “in Euboico scopulus brevis emicat altō Gurgite,a small, narrow rock, Ov. M. 9, 226: “brevibus Gyaris,Juv. 1, 73: “scis In breve te cogi (sc. libellum),that you are closely rolled together, Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 8: “quo brevius valent,the nearer, the more powerful are they in conflict, Tac. A. 6, 35.—
2. Trop. of the journey of life: “quid est, quod in hoc tam exiguo vitae curriculo et tam brevi tantis nos in laboribus exerceamus?Cic. Arch. 11, 28; cf.: “vitae brevis cursus, gloriae sempiternus,id. Sest. 21, 47: “tum brevior dirae mortis aperta via est,Tib. 1, 10, 4.—And poet. of the thread of life: “fila vitae breviora,Ov. Tr. 5, 10, 46. —
C. In depth, small, little, shallow (opp. profundus): “puteus,Juv. 3, 226: “vada,Verg. A. 5, 221; Sen. Agam. 570.—Hence, subst.: brĕvia , ium, n., as in Gr. τὰ βραχέα, shallow places, shallows, shoals: “tris Eurus ab alto In brevia et syrtis urget,Verg. A. 1, 111 (brevia vadosa dicit, per quae vadi pedibus potest, Serv.); Luc. 9, 338: neque discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia a profundis, Tac. A. 1, 70: “brevia litorum,id. ib. 6, 33 fin.—Perh. also in sing.: “breve,Tac. A. 14, 29 Draeg. ad loc. (Ritter, brevia; al. breve litus).—
2. Trop.: “brevia, in quibus volutatur, incerta, ancipitia,difficulties, Sen. Ep. 22, 7.—
D. Of the line of a circle: “ubi circulus (i.e. arcticus) axem Ultimus extremum spatioque brevissimus ambit,makes the shortest path, Ov. M. 2, 517; cf. “of similar orbits, of stars: absides breviores,Plin. 2. 15, 13, § “63.—Of the circular course of a horse on the track: discit gyro breviore flecti,Sen. Hippol. 314. —
II. Transf., of time.
A. Lit. (the usu. signif. of the word), short, brief, small, little.
1. In gen.: “quanto, nox, fuisti longior hac proxumā, Tanto brevior dies ut fiat faciam,Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 51: “breve spatium'st perferundi quae minitas mihi,id. Capt. 3, 5, 85: “brevis hora,Lucr. 4, 179; so Ov. M. 4, 696: Pa. Brevin' an longinquo sermone? Mi. Tribus verbis, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 30: “occasio,Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 57; Phaedr. 5, 8, 5: “brevis hic est fructus homulleis,short is this enjoyment for little men, Lucr. 3, 927; cf.: “MORS. PERFECIT. TVA. VT. TIBE. ESSENT. OMNIA. BREVIA. HONOS. FAMA. VIRTVSQVE. GLORIA. ATQVE. INGENIVM.,Inscr. Orell. 558: “omnia brevia tolerabilia esse debent,Cic. Lael. 27, 104; id. Fin. 1, 12, 40; 2, 29, 94; id. Tusc. 1, 39, 94; Sen. Ira, 3, 43, 5: “quoniam vita brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxime longam efficere,Sall. C. 1, 3; so, “vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam,Hor. C. 1, 4, 15; cf. id. ib. 1, 11, 6: “aut omnia breviora aliquanto fuere, aut Saguntum principio anni captum,occupied a shorter time, Liv. 21, 15, 5: “brevissimum tempus,id. 5, 6, 7: “detrimentum,Quint. 11, 1, 10: “arbitrium mortis,Tac. A. 15, 60: “breves populi Romani amores,id. ib. 2, 41: “tempus,Suet. Ner. 20 al.: “nobis quom semel occidit brevis lux, nox est perpetua una dormienda,Cat. 5, 5: “fructus,Lucr. 3, 914: “aevum,Hor. C. 2, 16, 17; id. S. 2, 6, 97; id. Ep. 2, 1, 144; Plin. Pan. 78, 2: “anni,Hor. C. 4, 13, 22: “ver,Ov. M. 1, 118; 10, 85: “flores rosae,quickly withering, short-lived, Hor. C. 2, 3, 13: “lilium,id. ib. 1, 36, 16: “cena,frugal, id. Ep. 1, 14, 35: “mensa,id. A. P. 198: “dominus,living but a short time, id. C. 2, 14, 24: “stultitia,id. ib. 4, 12, 27: “ira furor brevis est,id. Ep. 1, 2, 62: “actio brevis atque concisa,Quint. 6, 4, 2: “somnus,Sen. Troad. 441: “nec gratius quicquam decore nec brevius,nothing is more acceptable, but nothing more perishable, fading, than beauty, Suet. Dom. 18: “domus,Sen. Hippol. 762: “fortuna,Sil. 4, 734.—
2. Esp.
a. Comp. brevius, with subj. clause, shorter, i.e. easier, more convenient: “brevius visum urbana crimina incipi, quorum obvii testes erant,Tac. A. 13, 43: modo ne existimes brevius esse ab urbe mitti, Trag. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 40 (49), 3.—
b. In brevi spatio, brevi spatio, in brevi tempore, brevi tempore, and absol. brevi or in brevi, in a short time, shortly (before or after) (brevi tempore and brevi are class.; the latter, as in Gr. ἐν βραχεῖ, to be considered as neuter, without supplying tempore): “inque brevi spatio mutantur saecla animantum,Lucr. 2, 77; so Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 2; Suet. Claud. 12; id. Ner. 30; cf.: “in multo breviore temporis spatio,id. Aug. 22: “multa brevi spatio simulacra geruntur,Lucr. 4, 160; Sall. J. 87, 3: “spatio brevi,Hor. C. 1, 11, 6: “res publica per vos brevi tempore jus suum recuperabit,Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; 5, 21, 2; id. Tusc. 2, 2, 5; Caes. B. G. 1, 40, 11; Nep. Milt. 2, 1; id. Them. 1, 4; Suet. Caes. 3: “sic ille affectus, brevi postea est mortuus,soon after, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54, § 142 (Zumpt; “acc. to MSS. perbrevi).—So brevi post = paulo post: brevi post Marcellus Romam venit,Liv. 33, 37, 9; 24, 3, 14: “brevi deinde,id. 24, 4, 9: (Britanni) tantum usu cotidiano et exercitatione efficiunt, uti in declivi ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere et brevi (in a short time, i.e. with great rapidity) moderari ac flectere consuerint, Caes. B. G. 4, 33 fin. Herz. and Held.: “fama tanti facinoris per omnem Africam brevi divolgatur,Sall. J. 13, 1; Nep. Them. 4, 4: “mirantur tam brevi rem Romanam crevisse,Liv. 1, 9, 9: “brevi omnia subegit,Suet. Caes. 34; so id. Aug. 17; 65; id. Vesp. 5; id. Gram. 3; Gell. 1, 15, 18: scire in brevi, Afran. ap. Charis. p. 186 P.; Flor. 1, 1, 15.—
c. Brevi, a short time, a little while: cunctatusque brevi, contortam viribus hastam in Persea misit, Ov. M. 5, 32; cf.: “illa brevi spatio silet,id. ib. 7, 307; so, “* breve,Cat. 61, 187.—
d. Ad breve, for a short time, Suet. Tib. 68; cf.: “ad breve quoddam tempus,Cic. Cat. 1, 13, 31.—
B. Transf. to things done or taking place in a short time; so most freq.
1. Of discourse, short, brief, concise (most freq. in Cic. and Quint.): “narratio,Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 28; id. de Or. 3, 50, 196: laudatio; “comprehensio et ambitus ille verborum erat apud illum contractus et brevis,id. Brut. 44, 162; cf. id. de Or. 2, 80, 326: “nunc venio ad illa tua brevia: et primum illud, quo nihil potest esse brevius: bonum omne laudabile, etc.,id. Fin. 4, 18, 48: “quam falsa re! quam brevia responsu!id. Clu. 59, 164: urbanitas est virtus quaedam in breve dictum coacta, Dom. Mars. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 104: “Homerus brevem eloquentiam Menelao dedit,Quint. 12, 10, 64 (brevis = οὐ πολύμυθος, Hom. Il. 3, 214): “breviores commentarii,Quint. 3, 8, 58: “annotatio,id. 10, 7, 31: “brevia illa atque concisa,id. 10, 7, 10; so, “sententiae,id. 10, 1, 60: “causae,id. 6, 1, 8: “docendi compendia,id. 1, 1, 24: “comprehensiones,id. 12, 2, 19: “quod ut brevissimo pateat exemplo,id. 3, 6, 10: commendatio, requiring few words, i.e. moderate, Plin. 11, 42, 97, § 240.— Meton. of a speaker or orator, brief: “multos imitatio brevitatis decipit, ut cum se breves putent esse, longissimi sint,Cic. Inv. 1, 20, 38: “brevior in scribendo,id. Att. 5, 6, 2: “brevis esse laboro, Obscurus fio,Hor. A. P. 25: “in eloquendo brevis,Quint. 10, 1, 63: “densus et brevis et semper instans sibi Thucydides,id. 10, 1, 73.—Hence, brĕvī , adv., briefly, in few words (freq. and class.): “brevi pro breviter M. Tullius de Orat. ad Quintum fratrem (1, 8, 34): ac ne plura quidem quae sunt innumerabilia consecter, comprehendam brevi,Charis. p. 176 P.: “id percurram brevi,Cic. Caecin. 32, 94: “aliquid explicare,id. Planc. 40, 95 Wund.: “circumscribere et definire,id. Sest. 45, 97; so id. ib. 5, 12 Orell. N. cr.; id. Fin. 1, 17, 55: “complecti,id. de Or. 1, 42, 190: “exponere,id. ib. 1, 46, 203: “reprehendere,id. Inv. 1, 9, 12: “reddere,id. Leg. 2, 14, 34: “respondere,id. Fam. 3, 8, 1: “perscribere,id. ib. 4, 5, 1; so Auct. Her. 4, 26, 35; 35, 47 al.; cf.: “in brevi,Quint. 9, 4, 32.—So once in epistolary style: breve facere, to be short or brief: “quid scribam? breve faciam,Cic. Att. 11, 7, 6; cf.: “longum est ea dicere, sed hoc breve dicam,id. Sest. 5, 12.—Once, in breve cogere (diff. from I. A.), to comprise in few words, bring into a small compass: “in breve coactae causae,Liv. 39, 47, 5; cf.: “in breve coactio causae,Gai. Inst. 4, 15.— In late Lat. subst.: brĕvis , is, m. (sc. liber—acc. to another reading, brĕve , is, n.), a short catalogue, summary, = breviarium: “brevis nominum,Vop. Aur. 36; so id. Bonos. 15; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 21; Hier. Ep. 5, n. 2 al.—
C. For parvus, exiguus, little, small: “exigua pars brevisque,Lucr. 5, 591: “Canidia brevibus implicata viperis,Hor. Epod. 5, 15: “Alecto brevibus torquata colubris,Ov. H. 2, 119: “brevi latere ac pede longo est,Hor. S. 1, 2, 93; cf. “just before: breve quod caput, ardua cervix, v. 89, and brevis alvus,Verg. G. 3, 80 (on the other hand, Nemes. 244: “parvae alvi): mus,Ov. F. 2, 574: “forma (sc. pueri in stellionem mutati),id. M. 5, 457.— “So, lapathi herba,Hor. S. 2, 4, 29 (brevis = parva, non excrescens in altum, Schol. Cruqu.): “folia breviora,id. Ep. 1, 19, 26 (minor corona, Schol. Cruqu.): “census,id. C. 2, 15, 13: “pondus,id. S. 2, 2, 37: “impensa,Ov. H. 7, 188 Ruhnk.: “sigillum,id. M. 6, 86: “insulae,Pall. 1, 28, 1; cf. Juv. 1, 73: vasculum, Pall. Apr. 8, 4: “offulae,id. 1, 29, 4: “pantheris in candido breves macularum oculi,Plin. 8, 17, 23, § 62.—With nom. abstr.: “breve in exiguo marmore nomen ero,Prop. 2, 1, 72; Sen. Oedip. 935.—So, pondus, Hor. S. 2, 2, 37 al.—Hence, brĕ-vĭter , adv., shortly, briefly, etc.
1. Of space (acc. to I.) (rare): seu libeat, curvo brevius convertere gyro, shorter, i. e. in a smaller circle, Tib. 4, 1, 94: “parvo brevius quam totus,a little less than the whole, Plin. 2, 67, 67, § 168: “Sarmatae, omisso arcu, quo brevius valent, contis gladiisque ruerent,Tac. A. 6, 35.—Far more freq. in prose and poetry,
2. (Acc. to II. A. b. and c.) Of time, in a short time.
b. Esp.
(α). In expression, briefly, in brief, in few words, concisely, summarily: “sed breviter paucis praestat comprendere multa,Lucr. 6, 1082: multa breviter et commode dicta (sc. ἀποφθέγματα; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 29, 104) memoriae mandabam, Cic. Lael. 1, 1: “rem totam breviter cognoscite,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 69, § 169; 2, 3, 27, § 67; so id. de Or. 2, 83, 340: “summatim breviterque describere,id. Or. 15, 50: “breviter tangere,id. Off. 3, 2, 8 Beier N. cr.: “breviter et modice disserere,Sall. J. 111, 1: “adicere aliquid,Quint. 9, 3, 100; cf. also Verg. A. 2, 11; 4, 632; 6, 321; Ov. M. 2, 783: “omnia soli Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit (i.e. paucis testamenti verbis, quibus heres ex asse scribetur),Juv. 12, 125 Web. (cf. id. 1, 68: beatum exiguis tabulis).—Comp., Cic. Fin. 4, 10, 26; Quint. 8, prooem. § 1; 8, 6, 61; 9, 2, 16; 10, 1, 49; 11, 1, 5 al.—Sup., Cic. N. D. 2, 1, 3; id. Div. 1, 32, 70; Quint. 1, 10, 1; 4, 2, 113 al.
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