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băcŭlum , i, n. (băcŭlus , i, m., rare, and not before the Aug. period; Ov. M. 2, 789; id. F. 1, 177; App. M. 7, p. 194, 30; Aus. Epigr. 53; Isid. Orig. 20, 13, 1; Vulg. Gen. 38, 25; id. Psa. 22, 4; cf. bacillum), [like βάκτρον, from root ba- of βάξω, βιβάξω, βαίνω, to go = Sanscr. ga],
I.a stick, staff, as a support in walking (class.; while scipio is a staff for ornament, and fustis a stick for beating; Doed. Syn. III. p. 266 sqq.; but later used in all these signiff.; cf. “bacillum): proximus lictor, Sextius, converso baculo oculos misero tundere coepit,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 54, § 142: “baculum agreste,Ov. M. 15, 655: “pastorale,Sil. 13, 334; Ov. M. 8, 218; 14, 655; 15, 659; 6, 27; 8, 693; id. F. 1, 177; Claud. Epigr. 2, 3; 2, 26; 2, 484: “baculi crassitudo,Plin. 20, 23, 96, § 255.— So, baculum (-us) et pera, staff and pouch, badges of Cynic philosophers, Mart. 4, 53; App. Mag. p. 288, 6; Aus. Epigr. 53 (cf. bactroperita); Cels. 8, 20; Vitr. 10, 6; Plin. 30, 14, 44, § 129 Gron.; cf.: “in baculo me transivi Jordanum istum,” i.e. as a poor pilgrim, Vulg. Gen. 32, 10.—Also, the augural staff or lituus, Liv. 1, 18, 7.—A sceptre: “baculum aureum (regis) berylli distinguebant,Curt. 9, 1, 30; Flor. 3, 19, 10; cf. id. 4, 11, 3. —And of the sceptre on the stage, in tragic representations, Suet. Ner. 24 Oud.: “corpora serpentum baculi violaverat ictu,Ov. M. 3, 325; Col. 2, 20 (21), 4: “summa papaverum capita dicitur baculo decussisse,Liv. 1, 54, 6: “baculorum subactiones,blows with small staves, sticks, Vitr. 2, 4; 7, 3.—
B. In eccl. Lat. from baculus; trop., a support, stay: “an speras in baculo arundineo,Vulg. 4 Reg. 18, 21: “baculum senectutis nostrae,id. Tob. 10, 4.—
2. As instrument of wrath, rod, Vulg. Isa. 10, 24.
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