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bellum (ante-class. and poet. duel-lum ), i, n. Sanscr. dva, dvi, dus; cf. Germ. zwei; Engl. two, twice; for the change from initial du- to b-, cf. bis for duis, and v. the letter B, and Varr. L. L. 5, § 73 Müll.; 7, § 49 ib.,
I.war.
I. Form duellum: duellum, bellum, videlicet quod duabus partibus de victoriā contendentibus dimicatur. Inde est perduellis, qui pertinaciter retinet bellum, Paul. ex Fest. p. 66, 17 Müll.: “bellum antea duellum vocatum eo quod duae sunt dimicantium partes ... Postea mutatā litterā dictum bellum,Isid. Orig. 18, 1, 9: hos pestis necuit, pars occidit illa duellis, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 9, 861 P. (Ann. v. 549 Vahl.): “legiones reveniunt domum Exstincto duello maximo atque internecatis hostibus,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 35: “quae domi duellique male fecisti,id. As. 3, 2, 13.—So in archaic style, or in citations from ancient documents: “quique agent rem duelli,Cic. Leg. 2, 8, 21: “aes atque ferrum, duelli instrumenta,id. ib. 2, 18, 45 (translated from the Platonic laws): “puro pioque duello quaerendas (res) censeo,Liv. 1, 32, 12 (quoted from ancient transactions); so, “quod duellum populo Romano cum Carthaginiensi est,id. 22, 10, 2: “victoriaque duelli populi Romani erit,id. 23, 11, 2: “si duellum quod cum rege Antiocho sumi populus jussit,id. 36, 2, 2; “and from an ancient inscription' duello magno dirimendo, etc.,id. 40, 52, 5.—Poet.: “hic... Pacem duello miscuit,Hor. C. 3, 5, 38: “cadum Marsi memorem duelli,id. ib. 3, 14, 18: “vacuum duellis Janum Quirini clausit,id. ib. 4, 15, 8; cf. id. Ep. 1, 2, 7; 2, 1, 254; 2, 2, 98; Ov. F. 6, 201; Juv. 1, 169
II. Form bellum.
A. War, warfare (abstr.), or a war, the war (concr.), i.e. hostilities between two nations (cf. tumultus).
1. Specifying the enemy.
a. By adjj. denoting the nation: “omnibus Punicis Siciliensibusque bellis,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 47, § 124: “aliquot annis ante secundum Punicum bellum,id. Ac. 2, 5, 13: “Britannicum bellum,id. Att. 4, 16, 13: “Gallicum,id. Prov. Cons. 14, 35: “Germanicum,Caes. B. G. 3, 28: “Sabinum,Liv. 1, 26, 4: “Parthicum,Vell. 2, 46, 2; “similarly: bellum piraticum,the war against the pirates, Vell. 2, 33, 1.—Sometimes the adj. refers to the leader or king of the enemy: “Sertorianum bellum,Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: “Mithridaticum,id. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7: “Jugurthinum,Hor. Epod. 9, 23; Vell. 2, 11, 1; “similarly: bellum regium,the war against kings, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50. —Or it refers to the theatre of the war: “bellum Africanum, Transalpinum,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: “Asiaticum,id. ib. 22, 64: “Africum,Caes. B. C. 2, 32 fin.: “Actiacum,Vell. 2, 86, 3: “Hispaniense,id. 2, 55, 2.—
b. With gen. of the name of the nation or its leader: bellum Latinorum, the Latin war, i. e. against the Latins, Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 6: “Venetorum,Caes. B. G. 3, 16: “Helvetiorum,id. ib. 1, 40 fin.; “1, 30: Ambiorigis,id. ib. 6, 29, 4: “Pyrrhi, Philippi,Cic. Phil. 11, 7, 17: “Samnitium,Liv. 7, 29, 2.—
c. With cum and abl. of the name.
(β). With cum dependent on the verb: “quia bellum Aetolis esse dixi cum Aliis,Plaut. Capt. prol. 59: “novi consules... duo bella habuere... alterum cum Tiburtibus,Liv. 7, 17, 2; esp. with gero, v. 2. b. α infra.—
d. With adversus and acc. of the name.
(β). With adversus dependent on the verb: quod homines populi Hermunduli adversus populum Romanum bellum fecere, Cincius ap. Gell. 16, 14, 1: nos pro vobis bellum suscepimus adversus Philippum. Liv. 31, 31, 18: “ut multo acrius adversus duos quam adversus unum pararet bellum,id. 45, 11, 8: “bellum quod rex adversus Datamem susceperat,Nep. Dat. 8, 5.—
f. With in and acc. (very rare): “Athenienses in Peloponnesios sexto et vicesimo anno bellum gerentes,Nep. Lys. 1, 1.—
g. With inter and acc.: “hic finis belli inter Romanos ac Persea fuit,Liv. 45, 9, 2.—
h. With apud and acc.: “secutum est bellum gestum apud Mutinam,Nep. Att. 9, 1.—
k. With dat. of the enemy after inferre and facere, v. 2. a. κ infra.—
2. With verbs.
a. Referring to the beginning of the war.
(γ). Bellum differre, to postpone a war: “nec jam poterat bellum differri,Liv. 2, 30, 7: “mors Hamilcaris et pueritia Hannibalis distulerunt bellum,id. 21, 2, 3; cf. id. 5, 5, 3.—
(δ). Bellum sumere, to undertake, begin a war (not in Cæsar): “omne bellum sumi facile, ceterum aegerrume desinere,Sall. J. 83, 1: “prius tamen omnia pati decrevit quam bellum sumere,id. ib. 20, 5: “de integro bellum sumit,id. ib. 62, 9: “iis haec maxima ratio belli sumendi fuerat,Liv. 38, 19, 3: “sumi bellum etiam ab ignavis, strenuissimi cujusque periculo geri,Tac. H. 4, 69; cf. id. A. 2, 45; 13, 34; 15, 5; 15, 7; id. Agr. 16.—(ε) Bellum suscipere (rarely inire), to undertake, commence a war, join in a war: “bellum ita suscipiatur ut nihil nisi pax quaesita videatur,Cic. Off. 1, 23, 80: “suscipienda quidem bella sunt ob eam causam ut, etc.,id. ib. 1, 11, 35: “judicavit a plerisque ignoratione... bellum esse susceptum,join, id. Marcell. 5, 13; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 35 (v. supra): “cum avertisset plebem a suscipiendo bello,undertaking, Liv. 4, 58, 14: “senatui cum Camillo agi placuit ut bellum Etruscum susciperet,id. 6, 9, 5: “bella non causis inita, sed ut eorum merces fuit,Vell. 2, 3, 3.— (ζ) Bellum consentire = bellum consensu decernere, to decree a war by agreement, to ratify a declaration of war (rare): “consensit et senatus bellum,Liv. 8, 6, 8: “bellum erat consensum,id. 1, 32, 12.—(η) Bellum alicui mandare, committere, decernere, dare, gerendum dare, ad aliquem deferre, or aliquem bello praeficere, praeponere, to assign a war to one as a commander, to give one the chief command in a war: “sed ne tum quidem populus Romanus ad privatum detulit bellum,Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: “populus Romanus consuli... bellum gerendum dedit,id. ib.: “cur non... eidem ... hoc quoque bellum regium committamus?id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50: “Camillus cui id bellum mandatum erat,Liv. 5, 26, 3: “Volscum bellum M. Furio extra ordinem decretum,id. 6, 22, 6: “Gallicum bellum Popilio extra ordinem datum,id. 7, 23, 2: “quo die a vobis maritimo bello praepositus est imperator,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44: “cum ei (bello) imperatorem praeficere possitis, in quo sit eximia belli scientia,id. ib. 16, 49: “hunc toti bello praefecerunt,Caes. B. G. 5, 11 fin.: “alicui bellum suscipiendum dare,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 19, 58: “bellum administrandum permittere,id. ib. 21, 61.— (θ) Bellum indicere alicui, to declare war against (the regular expression; coupled with facere in the ancient formula of the pater patratus), also bellum denuntiare: ob eam rem ego... populo Hermundulo... bellum (in)dico facioque, Cincius ap. Gell. 16, 14, 1: “ob eam rem ego populusque Romanus populis... Latinis bellum indico facioque,Liv. 1, 32, 13: “Corinthiis bellum indicamus an non?Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17: “ex quo intellegi potest, nullum bellum esse justum nisi quod aut rebus repetitis geratur, aut denuntiatum ante sit et indictum,id. Off. 1, 11, 36; id. Rep. 3, 23, 35: “bellum indici posse existimabat,Liv. 1, 22, 4: “ni reddantur (res) bellum indicere jussos,id. 1, 22, 6: “ut... nec gererentur solum sed etiam indicerentur bella aliquo ritu, jus ... descripsit quo res repetuntur,id. 1, 32, 5; cf. id. 1, 32, 9; 2, 18, 11; 2, 38, 5; Verg. A. 7, 616.— (κ) Bellum inferre alicui (cf. contra aliquem, 1. e. supra; also bellum facere; absol., with dat., or with cum and abl.), to begin a war against (with), to make war on: “Denseletis nefarium bellum intulisti,Cic. Pis. 34, 84: “ei civitati bellum indici atque inferri solere,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 31, § 79: “qui sibi Galliaeque bellum intulissent,Caes. B. G. 4, 16; Nep. Them. 2, 4; Verg. A. 3, 248: “bellumne populo Romano Lampsacena civitas facere conabatur?Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 31, § 79: “bellum patriae faciet,id. Mil. 23, 63; id. Cat. 3, 9, 22: “civitatem Eburonum populo Romano bellum facere ausam,Caes. B. G. 5, 28; cf. id. ib. 7, 2; “3, 29: constituit bellum facere,Sall. C. 26, 5; 24, 2: “occupant bellum facere,they are the first to begin the war, Liv. 1, 14, 4: “ut bellum cum Priscis Latinis fieret,id. 1, 32, 13: “populus Palaepolitanis bellum fieri jussit,id. 8, 22, 8; cf. Nep. Dion, 4, 3; id. Ages. 2, 1.— Coupled with instruere, to sustain a war: “urbs quae bellum facere atque instruere possit,Cic. Agr. 2, 28, 77.—Bellum facere had become obsolete at Seneca's time, Sen. Ep. 114, 17.—(λ) Bellum oritur or exoritur, a war begins: “subito bellum in Galliā ex, ortum est,Caes. B. G. 3, 7: “aliud multo propius bellum ortum,Liv. 1, 14, 4: “Veiens bellum exortum,id. 2, 53, 1.—
b. Referring to the carrying on of the war: bellum gerere, to carry on a war; absol., with cum and abl., per and acc., or in and abl. (cf.: “bellum gerere in aliquem, 1. a. and f. supra): nisi forte ego vobis... cessare nunc videor cum bella non gero,Cic. Sen. 6, 18: “cum Celtiberis, cum Cimbris bellum ut cum inimicis gerebatur,id. Off. 1, 12, 38: “cum ei bellum ut cum rege Perse gereret obtigisset,id. Div. 1, 46, 103: “erant hae difficultates belli gerendi,Caes. B. G. 3, 10: “bellum cum Germanis gerere constituit,id. ib. 4, 6: “Cn. Pompeius in extremis terris bellum gerebat,Sall. C. 16, 5: “bellum quod Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere,Liv. 21, 1, 1: “alter consul in Sabinis bellum gessit,id. 2, 62, 3: “de exercitibus per quos id bellum gereretur,id. 23, 25, 5: “Chabrias bella in Aegypto suā sponte gessit,Nep. Chabr, 2, 1.—Sometimes bellum administrare only of the commander, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 15, 43; Nep. Chabr. 2, 1. —Also (very rare): “bellum bellare,Liv. 8, 40, 1 (but belligerantes is absol., Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38; Ann. v. 201 Vahl.); “in the same sense: bellum agere,Nep. Hann. 8, 3. —As a synonym: “bello persequi aliquem,Nep. Con. 4, 1; cf. Liv. 3, 25, 3.—
(γ). Bellum repellere, defendere, or propulsare, to ward off, defend one's self against a war: “bellum Gallicum C. Caesare imperatore gestum est, antea tantummodo repulsum,Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32: “quod bellum non intulerit sed defenderit,Caes. B. G. 1, 44: “Samnitium vix a se ipsis eo tempore propulsantium bellum,Liv. 8, 37, 5.—
c. Referring to the end of a war.
(γ). Bellum conficere, perficere, finire, to finish, end a war; conficere (the most usual term) and perficere, = to finish a war by conquering; finire (rare), without implying success: “is bellum confecerit qui Antonium oppresserit,Cic. Fam. 11, 12, 2: “bellumque maximum conficies,id. Rep. 6, 11, 11: “confecto Mithridatico bello,id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; cf. id. Fam. 5, 10, 3; id. Imp. Pomp. 14, 42: “quo proelio ... bellum Venetorum confectum est,Caes. B. G. 3, 16; cf. id. ib. 1, 30; 1, 44; 1, 54; 3, 28; “4, 16: bello confecto de Rhodiis consultum est,Sall. C. 51, 5; cf. id. J. 36, 1; 114, 3: “neminem nisi bello confecto pecuniam petiturum esse,Liv. 24, 18, 11; cf. id. 21, 40, 11; 23, 6, 2; 31, 47, 4; 32, 32, 6; “36, 2, 3: bello perfecto,Caes. B. C. 3, 18, 5; Liv. 1, 38, 3: “se quo die hostem vidisset perfecturum (i. e. bellum),id. 22, 38, 7; 31, 4, 2; cf. id. 3, 24, 1; 34, 6, 12; Just. 5, 2, 11: “neque desiturum ante... quam finitum aliquā tolerabili condicione bellum videro,Liv. 23, 12, 10: finito ex maximā parte.. italico bello, Vell. 2, 17, 1; Curt. 3, 1, 9; Tac. A. 15, 17; Just. 16, 2, 6; 24, 1, 8; Verg. A. 11, 116.—
3. As object denoting place or time.
a. Proficisci ad bellum, to depart for the war.
(β). Of persons partaking in a war: “si proficiscerer ad bellum,Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 1. —
b. Ad bellum mittere, of the commander, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50; 21, 62.—
c. In bella ruere, Verg. A. 7, 782; 9, 182: “in bella sequi,id. ib. 8, 547.—
d. Of time.
(α). In the locative case belli, in war, during war; generally with domi ( = domi militiaeque): “valete, judices justissimi, domi bellique duellatores,Plaut. Capt. prol. 68; so, “domi duellique,id. As. 3, 2, 13 (v. I. supra): “quibuscunque rebus vel belli vel domi poterunt rem publicam augeant,Cic. Off. 2, 24, 85: “paucorum arbitrio belli domique agitabatur,Sall. J. 41, 7: “animus belli ingens, domi modicus,id. ib. 63, 2; Liv. 2, 50, 11; 1, 36, 6; so id. 3, 43, 1; cf.: “bello domique,id. 1, 34, 12: “domi belloque,id. 9, 26, 21; and: “neque bello, neque domi,id. 4, 35, 3.—Without domi: “simul rem et gloriam armis belli repperi,Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 60 (where belli may be taken with gloriam; cf. “Wagn. ad loc.): magnae res temporibus illis a fortissimis viris... belli gerebantur,Cic. Rep. 2, 32, 86.—
(β). In bello or in bellis, during war or wars, in the war, in the wars; with adj.: “ad haec quae in civili bello fecerit,Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 47; cf. id. ib. 14, 8, 22: “in ipso bello eadem sensi,id. Marcell. 5, 14: “in Volsco bello virtus enituit,Liv. 2, 24, 8: “in eo bello,id. 23, 46, 6: “in Punicis bellis, Plin.8, 14, 14, § 37: in bello Trojano,id. 30, 1, 2, § 5.—Without adj.: “ut fit in bello, capitur alter filius,Plaut. Capt. prol. 25: “qui in bello occiderunt,Cic. Fam. 9, 5, 2: “quod in bello saepius vindicatum est in eos, etc.,Sall. C. 9, 4: “non in bello solum, sed etiam in pace,Liv. 1, 15, 8; 2, 23, 2: “in bello parta,Quint. 5, 10, 42; 12, 1, 28.—
4. Bellum in attributive connection.
a. Justum bellum.
(α). A righteous war, Cic. Off. 1, 11, 36 (v. II. A. 2. a. θ supra): “justum piumque bellum,Liv. 1, 23, 4: “non loquor apud recusantem justa bella populum,id. 7, 30, 17; so Ov. M. 8, 58; cf.: illa injusta sunt bella quae sine causā suscepta sunt, Cic. Rep. 3, 23, 35.—
(β). A regular war (opp. a raid, etc.): “in fines Romanos excucurrerunt, populabundi magis quam justi more belli,Liv. 1, 15, 1.—
b. For the different kinds of war: domesticum, civile, intestinum, externum, navale, maritimum, terrā marique gestum, servile, sociale; v. hh. vv.—
d. Fortuna belli, the chances of war: “adeo varia fortuna belli ancepsque Mars fuit ut,Liv. 21, 1, 2; cf. Cic. Marcell. 5, 15 (v. c. supra).—
f. Jus belli, the law of war: jura belli, the rights (law) of war: “in re publicā maxime servanda sunt jura belli,Cic. Off. 1, 11, 34: “sunt et belli sicut pacis jura,Liv. 5, 27, 6: “jure belli res vindicatur,Gai. Inst. 3, 94.—
g. Belli duces praestantissimos, the most excellent captains, generals, Cic. Or. 1, 2, 7: “trium simul bellorum victor,a victor in three wars, Liv. 6, 4, 1 (cf.: “victor tot bellis,id. 2, 27, 1). —
h. Belli vulnera, Cic. Marcell. 8, 24.—
B. Transf.
4. In mal. part., Hor. C. 3, 26, 3; 4, 1, 2.—
5. Personified as god of war ( = Janus): “tabulas duas quae Belli faciem pictam habent,Plin. 35, 4, 10, § 27: “sunt geminae Belli portae, etc.,Verg. A. 7, 607: “mortiferumque averso in limine Bellum,id. ib. 6, 279.—
7. Battle, = proelium: “rorarii dicti a rore: qui bellum committebant ante,Varr. L. L. 7, 3, 92: “quod in bello saepius vindicatum in eos qui... tardius, revocati, bello excesserant,Sall. C. 9, 4: “praecipua laus ejus belli penes consules fuit,Liv. 8, 10, 7: “commisso statim bello,Front. Strat. 1, 11, 2: “Actia bella,Verg. A. 8, 675: “ingentem pugnam, ceu cetera nusquam Bella forent,id. ib. 2, 439; cf. Flor. 3, 5, 11; Just. 2, 12; 18, 1 fin.; 24, 8; Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 98 (form duellum); Ov. H. 1, 1, 69; Verg. A. 8, 547; 12, 390; 12, 633; Stat. Th. 3, 666. —
8. Bellum = liber de bello: “quam gaudebat Bello suo Punico Naevius!Cic. Sen. 14, 50.
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