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cornū , ūs (so Caes. B. C. 3, 68 Dint.; Luc. 7, 217; Plin. 28, 11, 46, § 163 et saep.; Curt. 4, 12, 11 al.; ū in the connection cornu bubuli and cornu cervini; also Cael. Aur. Tard. 3, 5, 76; Veg. Art. Vet. 1, 20, 1 al.; cf. esp. Neue, Formenl. 1, p. 355), n. (access. form cornum , i, n., Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 14; Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 5 Fleck.; Lucr. 2, 388; Ov. M. 2, 874; Scrib. Comp. 141; Gell. 14, 6, 2 al.;
I.gen. plur. cornorum, Scrib. Comp. 60. —An access. form cornus , ūs, has been assumed on account of the rel. masc. in the passage: “nares similes cornibus iis, qui, etc.,Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 149, if the reading is correct.—The dat. sing. apparently never used; “for in the connection: laevo cornu Cotys rex praeerat ... dextro cornu praepositus C. Licinius Crassus,Liv. 42, 58, 6 and 7, the supposition of the abl. is more in acc. with the usage of Livy; cf.: “Antipatrum in laevo praeposuit,id. 37, 41, 1 et saep.) [kindred with κέρας, and Germ. and Engl. horn; cf. also carina, cervus], a horn.
I. Lit., a hard and generally crooked growth upon the head of many mammiferous animals (very freq. in all periods and species of composition), Plin. 11, 37, 45, § 123 sq.; Cic. N. D. 2, 47, 121; “of a bullock,Lucr. 5, 1033; 5, 1324; Cat. 64, 111; Ov. M. 9, 186; Hor. C. 3, 27, 72; id. S. 1, 5, 58 et saep.; “also of the constellation Taurus,Ov. M. 2, 80; “of the ram,id. ib. 5, 328; and the constellation Aries, Cic. poët. N. D. 2, 43, 111; “of the he-goat,Verg. E. 9, 25; “of kids,id. G. 2, 526 al.—Of the antlers of a stag, Ov. M. 3, 194; 10, 111; Verg. A. 10, 725 al.: Cornu Copiae (less correctly, but freq. in late Lat., as one word, Cornūcōpĭae , and twice Cornūcōpĭa , ae, f., Amm. 22, 9, 1; 25, 2, 3), acc. to the fable, the horn of the goat Amalthea placed in heaven, Greek Κέρας Ἀμαλθείας (v. Amalthea), the emblem of fruitfulness and abundance, Plaut. Ps. 2, 3, 5; Gell. 14, 6, 2; cf. Hor. C. 1, 17, 16; id. C. S. 60; id. Ep. 1, 12, 29; Ov. M. 9, 88.—
B. Meton., of things similar to horn in substance or form, or made of horn.
1. That which is similar to horn in substance.
a. A hoof, Cato, R. R. 72; Verg. G. 3, 88; Sil. 13, 327.—
b. Of the bills of birds, Ov. M. 14, 502.—
c. The horny skin covering the eye, Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 148.—
d. A horny excrescence on the head, a wart, Hor. S. 1, 5, 58.— Far more freq.,
2. That which is similar to a horn in form, a projecting extremity, the point or end of any object.
a. The tooth or tusk of an elephant, ivory, Varr. L. L. 7, § 39 Müll.; Plin. 8, 3, 4, § 7; 18, 1, 1, § 2: “cornu Indicum,Mart. 1, 73, 4.—
b. The horns of the moon, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 122, 2; Verg. G. 1, 433; Ov. M. 1, 11; 2, 117 et saep.—
c. The branches of a river, Ov. M. 9, 774.—Hence, the river-gods were represented with horns, Verg. G. 4, 371; Mart. 10, 7 et saep.; cf.: corniger, tauriformis, etc., and v. Lidd. and Scott under κέρας, V.—
d. The arm of the shore forming a harbor, a tongue of land, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 14, 1; Ov. M. 5, 410; Plin. 4, 21, 35, § 113.—
e. The extremity or end of the sailyards, Verg. A. 3, 549; 5, 832; Ov. M. 11, 476; Hor. Epod. 16, 59; Sil. 14. 389.
f. The cone of a helmet in which the crest was placed: “cornua cristae,Verg. A. 12, 89: “alterum cornu galeae,Liv. 27, 33, 2.—
g. The end of the stick around which books were rolled, usually ornamented with ivory, Tib. 3, 1, 13; Ov. Tr. 1, 1, 8; Mart. 11, 107. —
h. The side of a bow in the form of a horn, Ov. M. 1, 455; 5, 56; 2, 603.—
i. The horn-shaped side of the cithara (perh. the sounding-board), Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 149 fin.
k. The top or summit of a mountain: “cornua Parnasi,Stat. Th. 5, 532; Curt. 3, 4, 4. —
1. The point, end, extremity, wing of a place, Liv. 25, 3, 17; Tac. A. 1, 75; Plin. 34, 6, 12, § 26 al.
m. The wing of an army (very freq.), Caes. B. G. 1, 52 (three times); 2, 23; 2, 25; 7, 62 (twice); Liv. 9, 40, 3 sq(seven times).—*
(β). Transf.: “cornua disputationis tuae commovere,” i. e. to drive back, Cic. Div. 2, 10, 26 (v. the passage in connection).—
n. The feeler or claw of an insect, Plin. 9, 30, 50, § 95; 9, 31, 51, § 99 al.
o. The stiff hair of the Germans: “quis stupuit Germani lumina, flavam Caesariem et madido torquentem cornua cirro?Juv. 13, 165.—
3. Of objects made of horn.
a. A bow, Verg. E. 10, 59; Ov. M. 5, 383; Sil. 2, 109 al.
b. A bugle-horn, a horn, trumpet (cornua, quod ea, quae nunc sunt ex aere, tunc fiebant bubulo e cornu, Varr. L. L. 5, § 117 Müll.), Lucil. ap. Non. p. 265, 5; Lucr. 2, 620; Verg. A. 7, 615; Ov. M. 1, 98; 3, 533; Hor. C. 1, 18, 14; 2, 1, 17; Juv. 2, 90; 6, 315.—Connected with tubae, Cic. Sull. 5, 17; Tac. A. 1, 68; 2, 81, cf. Dict. of Antiq., s. v. cornu.—In a sarcastic double sense with a.: dum tendit citharam noster, dum cornua Parthus, Poët. ap. Suet. Ner. 39 (v. the passage in connection).—
c. The sides of the lyre, originally consisting of two horns, giving resonance to the strings, Cic. N. D. 2, 57, 144; 2, 59, 149.—
d. A lantern, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 185; cf. Lucr 2, 388; and Plin. 11, 16, 16, § 49.—
e. An oil cruet, Hor S. 2, 2, 61.—
II. Trop., as an emblem of power, courage, strength, might (the figure taken from bullocks. Also in Heb. a very freq. metaph.; cf. Gesen. Lex. s. v. , p. 906, 6; poet.): “ne in re secundā nunc mi obvortat cornua,Plaut. Ps. 4, 3, 5: “venerunt capiti cornua sera meo,Ov. Am. 3, 11,: “tunc pauper cornua sumit,gains strength, courage, id. A. A. 1, 239; cf.“. tu (sc. amphora) addis cornua pauperi, etc.,Hor. C. 3, 21, 18.—Hence Bacchus, as a giver of courage, is represented with horns, Tib. 2, 1, 3; Hor. C. 2, 19, 30; v. Bacchus, I.; cf. of a river-god, I. B. 2. c. supra.
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