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căpŭt (kăp-căpud ), ĭtis (
I.abl. sing. regularly capite: “capiti,Cat. 68, 124; cf. Tib. 1, 1, 72 Huschk., where the MSS., as well as Caes. German. Arat. 213, vary between the two forms), n. kindr. with Sanscr. kap-āla; Gr. κεφ-αλή; Goth. haubith; Germ. Haupt.
I. The head, of men and animals: “oscitat in campis caput a cervice revolsum,Enn. Ann. 462 Vahl.: i lictor, conliga manus, caput obnubito, form. ap. Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 13; cf. Liv. 1, 26, 6: “tun' capite cano amas, homo nequissume?Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 34; so, “cano capite,id. As. 5, 2, 84; id. Cas. 3, 1, 4; Tib. 1, 1, 72; Pers. 1, 83 al.; cf. Tib. 1, 10, 43, and: “capitis nives,Hor. C. 4, 13, 12, and Quint. 8, 6, 17 Spald.: “raso capite calvus,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 306: “irraso,id. Rud. 5, 2, 16: “intonsum,Quint. 12, 10, 47: “amputare alicui,Suet. Galb. 20; Vulg. 1 Par. 10, 9: “capite operto,Cic. Sen. 10, 34, 34: “obvoluto,id. Phil. 2, 31, 77 Klotz: “caput aperire,id. ib.: “abscindere cervicibus,id. ib. 11, 2, 5: “demittere,Caes. B. G. 1, 32; Cat. 87, 8; Verg. A. 9, 437: attollere. Ov. M. 5, 503: “extollere,to become bold, Cic. Planc. 13, 33: efferre, to raise one's head, to be eminent, Verg. E. 1, 25 al.—Of animals, Tib. 2, 1, 8; Hor. S. 1, 2, 89; 2, 3, 200; id. Ep. 1, 1, 76 al.
b. Prov.: supra caput esse, to be over one's head, i. e. to be at one's very doors, to threaten in consequence of nearness ( = imminere, impendere), Sall. C. 52, 24; Liv. 3, 17, 2; Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 6; Tac. H. 4, 69; cf. Kritz ad Sall. l. l.: capita conferre (like our phrase to put heads together, i. e to confer together in secret), Liv. 2, 45, 7: “ire praecipitem in lutum, per caputque pedesque,over head and ears, Cat. 17, 9: “nec caput nec pedes,neither beginning nor end, good for nothing, Cic. Fam. 7, 31, 2; cf. Cato ap. Liv. Epit. lib. 50; Plaut. As. 3, 3, 139 sq.
c. Capita aut navia (al. navim), heads or tails, a play of the Roman youth in which a piece of money is thrown up, to see whether the figure-side (the head of Janus) or the reverse - side (a ship) will fall uppermost, Macr. S. 1, 7; Aur. Vict. Orig. 3; cf. Ov. F. 1, 239; Paul. Nol. Poëm. 38, 73.—
d. Poet., the head, as the seat of the understanding: “aliena negotia Per caput saliunt,run through the head, Hor. S. 2, 6, 34; so id. ib. 2, 3, 132; id. A. P. 300.—
e. Ad Capita bubula, a place in Rome in the tenth region, where Augustus was born, Suet. Aug. 5.—
2. Transf., of inanimate things.
a. In gen., the head, top, summit, point, end, extremity (beginning or end): “ulpici,Cato, R. R. 71: “allii,Col. 6, 34, 1: “porri,id. 11, 3, 17: “papaveris,Liv. 1, 54, 6; Verg. A. 9, 437: “bulborum,Plin. 19, 5, 30, § 94: “caulis,id. 19, 8, 41, § 140 al.: “jecoris (or jecinoris, jocinoris),Cic. Div. 2, 13, 32; Liv. 8, 9, 1; cf. id. 27, 26, 14; 41, 14, 7; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 244 Müll.: “extorum,Ov. M. 15, 795; Luc. 1, 627; Plin. 11, 37, 73, § 189: pontis, tēte de pont, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 4; cf. Front. Arat. 2, 13, 5: “tignorum,Caes. B. C. 2, 9: “columnae,Plin. 34, 3, 7, § 13: “molis,the highest point of the mole, Curt. 4, 2, 23: “xysti,Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 20: “porticus,id. ib. 5, 6, 19 al.—
b. Esp., of rivers,
(α). The origin, source, spring (head): “caput aquae illud est, unde aqua nascitur,Dig. 43, 20, 1, § 8; so Lucr. 5, 270; 6, 636; 6, 729; Tib. 1, 7, 24; Hor. C. 1, 1, 22; id. S. 1, 10, 37; Verg. G. 4, 319; 4, 368; Ov. M. 2, 255; Hirt. B. G. 8, 41; Liv. 1, 51, 9; 2, 38, 1; 37, 18, 6: “fontium,Vitr. 8, 1; Mel. 3, 2, 8; Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 5; 10, 91, 1 al.
(β). (more rare) The mouth, embouchure, Caes. B. G. 4, 10; Liv. 33, 41, 7; Luc. 2, 52; 3, 202.—
c. Also of plants, sometimes the root, Cato, R. R. 36; 43; 51: “vitis,id. ib. 33, 1; 95, 2; Plin. 17, 22, 35, § 195; Verg. G. 2, 355.—
d. Also, in reference to the vine, vine branches, Col. 3, 10, 1; Cic. Sen. 15, 53.—Poet., also the summit, top of trees, Enn. ap. Gell. 13, 20, and ap. Non. 195, 24; Ov. M. 1, 567; Poët. ap. Quint. 9, 4, 90; Claud. Rapt. Pros. 3, 370. —
e. Of mountains, rocks, Verg. A. 4, 249; 6, 360.—
f. Of a boil that swells out, Cels. 8, 9; “hence, facere,to come to a head, Plin. 22, 25, 76, § 159; 26, 12, 77, § 125; cf.: capita deorum appellabantur fasciculi facti ex verbenis, Paul. ex Fest. p. 64 Müll.—
II. Per meton. (pars pro toto), a man, person, or animal (very freq. in prose and poetry; cf. κάρα, κεφαλή, , in the same signif.; “v. Liddell and Scott and Robinson): pro capite tuo quantum dedit,Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 54; id. Pers. 1, 1, 37: “hoc conruptum'st caput,id. Ep. 1, 1, 85: “siquidem hoc vivet caput, i. e. ego,id. Ps. 2, 4, 33; so id. Stich. 5, 5, 10; cf. id. Capt. 5, 1, 25: “ridiculum caput!Ter. And. 2, 2, 34: “festivum,id. Ad. 2, 3, 8: “lepidum,id. ib. 5, 9, 9: “carum,Verg. A. 4, 354; Hor. C. 1, 24, 2: “liberum,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 32, § 79: “vilia,Liv. 25, 6, 9: “viliora,id. 9, 26, 22: “vilissima,id. 24, 5, 13: “ignota,id. 3, 7, 7; cf. id. 2, 5, 6: “liberorum servorumque,id. 29, 29, 3 al.—In imprecations: “istic capiti dicito,Plaut. Rud. 3, 6, 47; cf.: “vae capiti tuo,id. Most. 4, 3, 10; so id. Poen. 3, 3, 32; Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 6; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 1, 4; Tib. 1, 2, 12; Verg. A. 8, 484; 11, 399 al.—With numerals: “capitum Helvetiorum milia CCLXIII.,souls, Caes. B. G. 1, 29; 4, 15: “quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum Milia,Hor. S. 2, 1, 27; id. Ep. 2, 2, 189; cf. id. C. 1, 28, 20 al.; so, in capita, in distribution, to or for each person (cf. in Heb. also , for each head, poll, = for each individual, v. Robinson in h. v.), Liv. 2, 33, 11; 32, 17, 2; 34, 50, 6 al. (cf.: “in singulos,id. 42, 4, 5).—Of. the poll-tax: “exactio capitum,Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 5; so, “capite censi, v. censeo.—Of animals,Verg. A. 3, 391; Col. 6, 5, 4 fin.; 8, 5, 4; 8, 5, 7; 8, 11, 13; Veg. Vet. 1, 18.—
III. Trop.
1. Life, and specif.,
b. Civil or political life, acc. to the Roman idea, including the rights of liberty, citizenship, and family (libertatis, civitatis, familiae): its loss or deprivation was called deminutio or minutio capitis, acc. to the foll. jurid. distinction: capitis deminutionis tria genera sunt: maxima, media, minima; tria enim sunt, quae habemus: libertatem, civitatem, familiam. Igitur cum omnia haec amittimus (as by servitude or condemnation to death), maximam esse capitis deminutionem; cum vero amittimus civitatem (as in the interdictio aquae et ignis) libertatem retinemus, mediam esse capitis deminutionem; “cum et libertas et civitas retinetur, familia tantum mutatur (as by adoption, or, in the case of women, by marriage) minimam esse capitis deminutionem constat,Dig. 4, 5, 11; cf. Just. Inst. 1, 16, 4; Cic. de Or. 1, 40, 181; 1, 54, 231; id. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; Liv. 3, 55, 14; 22, 60, 15: “capitis minor,Hor. C. 3, 5, 42: “servus manumissus capite non minuitur, quia nulnum caput habuit,Dig. 4, 5, 3, § 1.—Of the deminutio media, Cic. Brut. 36, 136; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 40, §§ 98 and 99; id. Quint. 2, 8 al.—Of the deminutio minima, Cic. Top. 4, 18; cf. Gai Inst. 1, 162.—
2. The first or chief person or thing, the head, leader, chief, guide (very freq.).
(α). With gen.: “scelerum,an arrant knave, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 4, 7, 31; id. Mil. 2, 6, 14; id. Ps. 1, 5, 31; 4, 5, 3; id. Rud. 4, 4, 54: “perjuri,id. ib. 4, 4, 55: “concitandorum Graecorum,Cic. Fl. 18, 42: “consilil,Liv. 8, 31, 7: “conjurationis,id. 9, 26, 7: “caput rei Romanae Camillus,id. 6, 3, 1; cf.: “caput rerum Masinissam fuisse,id. 28, 35, 12; so id. 26, 40, 13: “reipublicae,Tac. A. 1, 13: “nominis Latini,heads, chiefs, Liv. 1, 52, 4: “belli,id. 45, 7, 3: “Suevorum,chieftribe, Tac. G. 39 fin. al.—The predicate in gen. masc.: “capita conjurationis ejus virgis caesi ac securi percussi,Liv. 10, 1, 3.—
(β). With esse and dat.: “ego caput fui argento reperiundo,Plaut. As. 3, 3, 138; cf.: “illic est huic rei caput,author, contriver, Ter. And. 2, 6, 27; so id. Ad. 4, 2, 29 al.
(γ). Absol.: “urgerent philosophorum greges, jam ab illo fonte et capite Socrate,Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 42: “corpori valido caput deerat,guide, leader, Liv. 5, 46, 5: “esse aliquod caput (i. e. regem) placebat,id. 1, 17, 4; cf. id. 1, 23, 4; Hor. S. 2, 5, 74 al.—Of things, head, chief, capital, etc.; “thus of cities: Thebas caput fuisse totius Graeciae,head, first city, Nep. Epam. 10 fin.; so with gen., Liv. 9, 37, 12; 10, 37, 4 Weissenb. ad loc.; 23, 11, 11; 37, 18, 3 (with arx); cf.: “pro capite atque arce Italiae, urbe Romanā,Liv. 22, 32, 5; and with dat.: “Romam caput Latio esse,id. 8, 4, 5; and: “brevi caput Italiae omni Capuam fore,id. 23, 10, 2 Drak. N. cr.—Of other localities: “castellum quod caput ejus regionis erat,the head, principal place, Liv. 21, 33, 11.—Of other things: “jus nigrum, quod cenae caput erat,the principal dish, Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 98; cf. id. Fin. 2, 8, 25: “patrimonii publici,id. Agr. 1, 7, 21; cf. id. ib. 2, 29, 80; Liv. 6, 14, 10: caput esse artis, decere, the main or principal point, Cic. de Or. 1, 29, 132: “caput esse ad beate vivendum securitatem,id. Lael. 13, 45: ad consilium de re publicā dandum caput est nosse rem publicam; “ad dicendum vero probabiliter, nosse mores civitatis,id. de Or. 2, 82, 337; 1, 19, 87: “litterarum,summary, purport, substance, id. Phil. 2, 31, 77: “caput Epicuri,the fundamental principle, dogma, id. Ac. 2, 32, 101; cf. Quint. 3, 11, 27: rerum, the chief or central point, head, Cic. Brut. 44, 164.—So in writings, a division, section, paragraph, chapter, etc.: “a primo capite legis usque ad extremum,Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 15; cf. id. ib. 2, 10, 26; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46, § 118 Ascon.; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4; Gell. 2, 15, 4 al.; Cic. de Or. 2, 55, 223; id. Fam. 7, 22 med.; Quint. 10, 7, 32: “id quod caput est,Cic. Att. 1, 17, 4; so id. Fam. 3, 7, 4.—Of money, the principal sum, the capital, stock (syn. sors; “opp. usurae),Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 11; 2, 3, 35, § 80 sq.; id. Att. 15, 26, 4; Liv. 6, 15, 10; 6, 35, 4; Hor. S. 1, 2, 14 al.
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