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-scendo , di, sum, 3 (
I.perf. redupl.: descendidit, Valer. Antias ap. Gell. 7, 4 fin.; and, descendiderant, Laber. ib.; perf.: desciderunt, Inscr. Frat. Arv. 13 Henzen.), v. n., to come down; and of inanimate subjects, to fall, sink down, to descend, opp. to ascendo (class. and freq.).
I. Lit.
A. In gen.: “ex equo,to alight, Cic. de Sen. 10, 34; Auct. B. Hisp. 15, 2; “for which, equo,Sall. Hist. Fragm. 5, 13: “sicut monte descenderat,id. J. 50, 2: “e curru,Suet. Tib. 20: “e tribunali,id. Claud. 15: “de rostris,Cic. Vatin. 11: “de templo,Liv. 44, 45: “de caelo,id. 6, 18; “for which, caelo,Hor. Od. 3, 4, 1: “e caelo,Juv. 11, 27: “caelo ab alto,Verg. A. 8, 423; cf.: “vertice montis ab alto,id. ib. 7, 675; and: “ab Histro (Da cus),id. G. 2, 497: “ab Alpibus,Liv. 21, 32, 2; 27, 38, 6: “monte,Verg. A. 4, 159: “aggeribus Alpinis atque arce Monoeci,id. ib. 6, 831: “antro Castalio,Ov. M. 3, 14: “per clivum,id. F. 1, 263 et saep.—Indicating the terminus ad quem: “in mare de caelo,Lucr. 6, 427: “Juppiter in terras,id. 6, 402: “in pon tum,Sil. 1, 607; 15, 152; cf.: “caelo in hibernas undas,Verg. G. 4, 235: “caelo ad suos honores templaque, etc.,Ov. F. 5, 551: “in aestum,Lucr. 6, 402: “in inferiorem ambulationem,Cic. Tusc. 4: “in campos,Liv. 6, 737; cf. Curt. 9, 9: “in Piraeum,Quint. 8, 6, 64 et saep.: “ad naviculas,Cic. Ac. 2, 48 fin.: “ad genitorem imas Erebi descendit ad umbras,Verg. A. 6, 404: “sinus vestis infra genua,Curt. 6, 5 et saep. Poet. also with dat.: “nocti, i. e. ad inferos,Sil. 13, 708; cf. “Erebo,id. 13, 759.—With sup.: “per quod oraculo utentes sciscitatum deos descendunt,Liv. 45, 27, 8.—Absol.: “turbo descendit,Lucr. 6, 438; cf. Verg. E. 7, 60: “asta ut descendam (sc. ex equo),dismount, alight, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 120; Suet. Galb. 18: “descendens (sc. e lecto),Tib. 1, 5, 41: “descendo (sc. de arce),Verg. A. 2, 632: “umbrae descendentes (sc. ad inferos),Stat. S. 5, 5, 41.—Poet.: trepidi quoties nos descendentis arenae vidimus in partes, i. e. that seemed to sink as the wild beasts rose from the vaults, Calp. Ecl. 7, 69.—
B. In partic.
1. To go down, to go, to come, sc. from the dwelling-houses (which in Rome were mostly situated on eminences) to the forum, the comitia, etc.: in forum descendens, Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 267; so, ad forum, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 538, 26; Q. Cic. Petit. cons. 14; Valer. Antias ap. Gell. 7, 9 fin.; Liv. 24, 7; 34, 1; cf.: “fuge, quo descendere gestis,Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 5; “Orell. ad loc.: ad comitia,Suet. Caes. 13 al.: “de palatio et aedibus suis,Cic. Rosc. Am. 46.—Absol.: “hodie non descendit Antonius,Cic. Phil. 2, 6, 15; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38; Liv. 2, 54; Sen. Ben. 3, 27 al.
c. Of land, etc., to sink, fall, slope: “regio,Val. Fl. 1, 538.—
d. Of forests whose wood is brought to the plain, Stat. Ach. 2, 115: “Caucasus,Val. Fl. 7, 55.—
e. Of water conveyed in pipes, to fall: “subeat descendatque,Plin. 31, 6, 31, § 57; cf. “of the sea: non magis descenderet aequor,Luc. 5, 338.—
2. In milit. lang., to march down, sc. from an eminence into the plain: “ex superioribus locis in planitiem,Caes. B. C. 3, 98; cf. id. ib. 3, 65, 2: “qua (sc. de monte),Sall. J. 50, 3: “inde (sc. de arce),Liv. 32, 32; cf. id. 7, 29: “in aequum locum,Caes. B. G. 7, 53, 2; “for which, in aequum,Liv. 1, 12: “in campum omnibus copiis,id. 23, 29: “in plana,Front. Strat. 2, 5, 18: “ad Alexandriam,Liv. 45, 12 et saep.—Absol., Liv. 44, 5; Front. Strat. 3, 17, 9: “ad laevam,Sall. J. 55 al.—With supine: “praedatum in agros Romanos,Liv. 3, 10, 4; 10, 31, 2.—Hence,
b. Transf.: “in aciem,to go into battle, to engage, Liv. 8, 8; 23, 29; Front. Strat. 1, 11, 11 al.: “in proelium,id. ib. 2, 1, 10; Just. 21, 2, 5: “in certamen,Cic. Tusc. 2, 26: “ad pugnam, ad tales pugnas,Val. Fl. 3, 518; Juv. 7, 173; Front. Strat. 2, 1, 11; 2, 5, 41; “and even, in bellum,Just. 15, 4, 21; 38, 8, 1; cf.: “in belli periculum,id. 15, 1, 2.—
3. In medic. lang., of the excrements: to pass off, pass through, Cels. 2, 4 fin.: “olera,id. 1, 6: “alvus,id. 2, 7.—
4. Pregn., to sink down, penetrate into any thing (freq. only after the Aug. per.; “not in Cic. and Caes.): ferrum in corpus,Liv. 1, 41; cf. Sil. 16, 544: “toto descendit in ilia ferro,Ov. M. 3, 67: “(harundo) in caput,Luc. 6, 216; cf.: “in jugulos gladiis descendebant (hostes),Flor. 3, 10, 13: “ense in jugulos,Claud. B. Get. 601: “in terram (fulmen),Plin. 2, 55, 56, § 146: “in rimam calamus,id. 17, 14, 24, § 102: “subjacens soli duritia non patitur in altum descendere (radices), lapathi radix ad tria cubita,Plin. 19, 6, 31, § 98 et saep.: “toto corpore pestis,Verg. A. 5, 683: “galeas vetant descendere cristae,to sink down, Stat. Th. 9, 262. —
5. In an obscene sense, Catull. 112, 2; Juv. 11, 163.—
II. Trop.
A. In gen. (esp. freq. in Quint.), to descend, etc.: “a vita pastorali ad agriculturam,Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 3 sq.; cf.: “ad aliquem,Just. 1, 4, 1: “usus in nostram aetatem descendit,Quint. 1, 11, 18: “(vox) attollitur concitatis affectibus, compositis descendit,id. 11, 3, 65; cf. id. 9, 4, 92: “grammatici omnes in hanc descendent rerum tenuitatem,id. 1, 4, 7 et saep.: “in omnia familiaritatis officia,Plin. Pan. 85, 5.—Pass. impers.: “eo contemptionis descensum, ut, etc.,Tac. A. 15, 1 et saep.: “si quid tamen olim Scripseris, in Maeci descendat judicis aures,Hor. A. P. 387: “si descendere ad ipsum Ordine perpetuo quaeris sunt hujus origo Ilus et Assaracus, etc.,Ov. M. 11, 754.—
B. In partic.
1. (Acc. to no. I. A. 4.) To sink deep into, to penetrate deeply: “quod verbum in pectus Jugurthae altius, quam quisquam ratus erat, descendit,Sall. J. 11, 7; cf.: “ut altius injuriae quam merita descendant,Sen. Ben. 1, 1 med.; id. Contr. 1 praef.; Spart. Ant. Get. 6: “cura in animos Patrum,Liv. 3, 52; cf.: “qui (metus deorum) cum descendere ad animos ... non posset,id. 1, 19: “nemo in sese tentat descendere,to examine himself, Pers. 4, 23.—
2. To lower one's self, descend to an act or employment, etc.; to yield, agree to any act, esp. to one which is unpleasant or wrong (freq. in Cic. and Caes.; cf. Orell. ad Cic. Cael. 2, and Fabri ad Liv. 23, 14, 3).—Constr. with ad, very rarely with in or absol.: “senes ad ludum adolescentium descendant,Cic. Rep. 1, 43; cf. id. de Or. 2, 6: “ad calamitatum societates,id. Lael. 17, 64: “sua voluntate sapientem descendere ad rationes civitatis non solere,id. Rep. 1, 6 al.: “ad ejusmodi consilium,Caes. B. G. 5, 29, 5: “ad innocentium supplicia,id. ib. 6, 16 fin.: “ad vim atque ad arma,id. ib. 7, 33: “ad gravissimas verborum contumelias,id. B. C. 3, 83: “ad accusandum, ad inimicitias,Cic. Mur. 27, 56; id. Sest. 41, 89; cf. id. Div. in Caecil. 1: ad extrema, Pollio ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 4: “ad frontis urbanae praemia,Hor. Ep. 1, 9, 11: “preces in omnes,Verg. A. 5, 782: “videte, quo descendam, judices,Cic. Font. 1, 2; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 38; Caes. B. C. 1, 81, 5: “ad intellectum audientis,Quint. 1, 2, 27: “ad minutissima opera,id. 1, 12, 14; 4, 2, 15: placet mihi ista defensio; “descendo,I acquiesce, id. ib. 2, 2, 72.—
3. (Mostly ante-Aug.) To descend or proceed from any person or thing: “ex gradu ascendentium vel descendentium uxorem ducere,Dig. 23, 2, 68 et saep.: “quod genus liberalitatis ex jure gentium descendit,ib. 43, 26, 1; cf. ib. 18, 1, 57 fin.: “a Platone,Plin. 22, 24, 51, § 111; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 43.—Hence, subst.: -scendens , entis, m. and f., a descendant; plur. descendentes, posterity, Dig. 23, 2, 68. —
4. (In Quint.) To depart, deviate, differ from: “tantum ab eo defluebat, quantum ille (sc. Seneca) ab antiquis descenderat,Quint. 10, 1, 126; id. 3, 5, 8.!*? The passive is very rare, Plin. 2, 16, 13, § 71; Prud. Apoth. 1075.
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