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dŏlus , i, m. Sanscr. dal-bhas, deceit; Gr. δόλος, cunning, δέλεαρ, bait. Orig.,
I.a device, artifice; hence, evil intent, wrongdoing with a view to the consequences (opp. culpa, negligence; cf. also: fallacia, fraus, astutia, calliditas).—In the older, and esp. the jurid. lang.: dolus malus, a standing expression for guile, fraud, deceit: doli vocabulum nunc tantum in malis utimur, apud antiquos etiam in bonis rebus utebatur. Unde adhuc dicimus Sine dolo malo, nimirum quia solebat dici et bonus, Paul. ex Fest. p. 69, 10 Müll.: in quibus ipsis (formulis) cum ex eo (sc. Aquillio) quaereretur, quid esset dolus malus? respondebat; “cum esset aliud simulatum, aliud actum,Cic. Off. 3, 14, 60; cf. id. Top. 9 fin.; and id. N. D. 3, 30: Labeo sic definit: Dolum malum esse omnem calliditatem, fallaciam, machinationem ad circumveniendum, fallendum, decipiendum alterum adhibitam, Dig. 4, 3, 1; so, dolus malus, acc. to Cic. Off. 3, 15, 61; 3, 24; id. Fl. 30, 74; id. Att. 1, 1, 3: “dolo malo instipulari,Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 25; in a pub. law formula in Liv. 1, 24 fin.; and 38, 11; Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 9 Don.; Dig. 4, 3 tit.: de dolo malo, and ib. 44, 4 tit.: de doli mali et metus exceptione, et saep.; opp. culpa, Cod. 5, 40, 9.—Far more freq. and class. (but rarely in Cic.),
III. Transf., the means or instrument of deceit: “dolos saltu deludit, i. e. the nets,Ov. Hal. 25: “subterraneis dolis peractum urbis excidium,Flor. 1, 12, 9.—Dolus, as a deity, Val. Fl. 2, 205: “superavit dolum Trojanum,Dolon, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 142.—
B. = culpa: “dolo factum suo,by his own fault, Hor. S. 1, 6, 90.
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