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dūco , xi, ctum, 3 (
I.imp. duc; “but duce,Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 18; id. Most. 1, 4, 11; id. Poen. 5, 4, 59; id. Rud. 2, 3, 55; id. Trin. 2, 2, 103; id. Truc. 2, 5, 26.—Perf. sync.: duxti, Varr. ap. Non. 283, 32; Cat. 91, 9; Prop. 1, 3, 27), v. a. cf. Goth. tiuh-an; O. H. Germ. zieh-an, to draw; Germ. -zog, in Herzog, commander, duke, to lead, conduct, draw, bring forward, in all senses; very freq. passing over into the signif. of the compounds abducere, deducere, adducere, producere, etc., and of the synonyms agere, trahere, movere, etc. (very freq.).
I. Lit.
A. In gen.: “quo sequar? quo ducis nunc me?Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 2: duc hos intro, id. Am. 2, 2, 224; id. Aul. 2, 6, 13: “duc ac demonstra mihi,id. Cist. 2, 3, 36: “suas secum mulierculas sunt in castra ducturi,Cic. Cat. 2, 10 fin.; cf. Caes. B. G. 5, 5 fin. et saep.: “(difficile iter) vix qua singuli carri ducerentur,id. ib. 1, 6, 1; cf. “plaustra,Ov. Tr. 3, 10, 34: aquam ducere, Cato ap. Charis. p. 192 P.; so, “aquam per fundum ejus,Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 2, § 4: “spiritum naribus,Varr. R. R. 2, 3, 5: so, “spiritum per siccas fauces,Sen. Ben. 3, 8; cf.: “aërem spiritu,Cic. N. D. 2, 6 fin.: “animam spiritu,id. ib. 2, 54, 136; and in gen.: spiritum, for to live, id. Fam. 10, 1; cf.: “vitam et spiritum,id. de Imp. Pomp. 12, 33: “tura naribus,to inhale, Hor. C. 4, 1, 22: “sucos nectaris,to drink in full draughts, to quaff, id. ib. 3, 3, 34; cf. “pocula,id. ib. 1, 17, 22; and: “Liberum,id. ib. 4, 12, 14.—Poet.: “jucunda oblivia vitae (referring to the waters of Lethe),Hor. S. 2, 6, 62 (cf. Verg. A. 6, 714 sq.) et saep.: “mucronem,to draw from the scabbard, Verg. A. 12, 378; cf.: “ferrum vaginā,Ov. F. 4, 929: “ensem vagina,Sil. 8, 342; “but: ensem duxerat faber,had beaten out, forged, Tib. 1, 3, 48: “sortem,Cic. Div. 2, 33; Verg. A. 6, 22; “hence, also transf. of that which is drawn by lot,Cic. Div. 1, 18, 34; id. Rep. 1, 34; Suet. Caes. 12; Tac. A. 1, 54; 3, 28 al.: “pondus aratri,to draw, Ov. M. 7, 119: “remos,to row, id. ib. 1, 294; cf. id. ib. 4, 353: “numerosa brachia,in dancing, id. Am. 2, 4, 29: “lanas,to spin, id. ib. 4, 34; cf. “stamina,id. ib. 4, 221: “ubera,to milk, id. ib. 9, 358: “frena manu,to guide, govern, id. ib. 15, 518: vela, to haul (= navigare), Prop. 1, 6, 2: “manus, of swimming,id. 3, 20, 2: “ilia,to draw the flanks together, become broken-winded, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 9: “os,to draw awry, to make wry faces, Cic. Or. 25 fin.; Quint. 9, 3, 101; cf. “vultum,Ov. M. 2, 774; id. P. 4, 8, 13; Mart. 1, 41 et saep.: “non equus impiger Curru ducet Achaico Victorem,to draw along, Hor. C. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Ep. 1, 1, 93.—Absol.: “sibi quisque ducere, trahere, rapere,to take to one's self, appropriate, Sall. J. 41, 5.—
B. Esp.
2. Se, in colloq. lang., to betake one's self, go: “jam me ad regem recta ducam,Plaut. Am. 4, 3, 8; id. Aul. 4, 8, 8; id. Bacch. 4, 2, 11; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 7: Balbus duxit se a Gadibus, Asin. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 32, 1.—
3. A legal t. t., to take, lead away, drag, carry off a person before court, to prison, to punishment, etc.: POST. DEINDE. MANVS. INIECTIO. ESTO. IN. IVS. DVCITO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 45; so, “in jus,Liv. 2, 27: “illos duci in carcerem jubent,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 30: “aliquem in carcerem,Suet. Caes. 20: “in vincula,id. ib. 79: “ad mortem,Cic. Cat. 1, 1, 1; Nep. Phoc. 4, 3; and absol.: “ducite, ubi capiat, etc.,Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 65; Sen. de Ira, 1, 16, 14; Suet. Calig. 27; Plin. Ep. 10, 97, 3 al.: NI. IVDICATVM. FACIT. AVT. QVIS. ENDO. EM. IVRE. VINDICIT. SECVM. DVCITO. VINCITO, etc., XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 45: “decreta ejus modi: SI PETIT DUCAS. C. Fuficium duci jussit petitorem,to be imprisoned, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 12, § 31; so of a debtor (addictus) who is led off as a slave, Novat. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 63, 255; Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 87; Cic. Fl. 20 fin.; Liv. 6, 14 sq.; cf. id. 2, 23 med.; cf. “prov.: stultitiast venatum ducere invitas canes,Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 83. —
4. Uxorem, to lead a wife home, i. e. to marry: “bona uxor si ea deducta est, etc. ... Verum egon eam ducam domum, Quae, etc.?Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 91: “uxorem domum,id. Aul. 2, 1, 40; Ter. Ph. 2, 1, 68: “filiam Orgetorigis in matrimonium,Caes. B. G. 1, 9, 3; cf. Liv. 4, 4: “eum uxorem ducturum esse aliam,Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 105: “uxorem (or aliquam, filiam alicujus, etc.),id. Aul. 2, 1, 48; id. Cas. prol. 69 et saep.; Ter. And. 1, 1, 128; 2, 1, 21 et saep.; Cic. Sest. 3; Caes. B. G. 1, 53, 4; id. B. C. 3, 110, 2; Verg. E. 8, 29; Vulg. Marc. 10, 11 et saep.—Absol.: “si tu negaris ducere,Ter. And. 2, 3, 5; 2, 3, 9; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 76; Liv. 4, 4 al.: jugum ducere cum infidelibus, i. e. to be yoked in marriage, Vulg. 2 Cor. 6, 14.—Rarely for nubere: si ignorans statum Erotis ut liberum duxisti, isque postea servus est judicatus, etc., Imp. Antonin. ap. Cod. Just. 5, 18, 3.—In the comic poets, of taking home prostitutes, Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 35; 4, 2, 44; id. Men. 1, 2, 15; id. Stich. 5, 4, 48; id. Truc. 3, 2, 10 et saep.—
5. In milit. lang.
a. Said of a commander, to lead, to cause to move, to march his army in any direction: “locis apertis exercitum ducere,Caes. B. G. 1, 41, 4; cf. id. B. C. 1, 64 fin.; 1, 68, 1: “exercitum ab Allobrogibus in Segusianos,id. B. G. 1, 10 fin.: “exercitum in fines Suessionum,id. ib. 2, 12, 1; cf. id. ib. 4, 38, 3; “5, 18, 1: exercitum (legiones, etc.) in Bellovacos,id. ib. 2, 13, 1; 5, 24, 2 et saep.; cf. Tac. A. 2, 57: “cohortes ad eam partem munitionum, quae, etc.,Caes. B. C. 3, 62, 2: “exercitum Uticam,id. ib. 2, 26, 1: “reliquas copias contra Labienum,id. B. G. 7, 61 fin. et saep.—In pass., of the soldiers, to march, move: “quam in partem aut quo consilio ducerentur,Caes. B. G. 1, 40, 2.—And in act., absol., of the general himself, to march, move (a favorite expression of Liv.; “not in Caes. or Sall.): (Mettus) ducit, quam proxime ad hostem potest,Liv. 1, 23; 1, 27; 9, 35; 22, 18 et saep.—Hence,
b. In gen., to lead, command an army or (more freq.) a division: “qua in legatione duxit exercitum,Cic. Mur. 9, 20; so, “exercitum,Nep. Eum. 13, 1; id. Epam. 7, 3: “qui superiore anno primum pilum duxerat,Caes. B. G. 5, 35, 6; 6, 38, 1; id. B. C. 3, 91, 1: “ordinem,id. ib. 1, 13, 4; 3, 104, 3; Suet. Vesp. 1: “partem exercitūs,Sall. J. 55, 4 et saep.—Rarely, to lead a division in front, in advance: “consuetudine sua Caesar sex legiones expeditas ducebat: post eas ... inde, etc.,Caes. B. G. 2, 19, 2; hence also, to march in front, take the lead, said of the division that forms the van: “pars equitum et auxiliariae cohortes ducebant, mox prima legio, etc.,Tac. A. 1, 51; cf. id. ib. 1, 64 fin.
(β). Transf. beyond the milit. sphere, to lead, to be leader, head, chief, first in any thing: “accedit etiam, quod familiam ducit,Cic. Fam. 7, 5 fin. Manut.; so, “familiam,id. Phil. 5, 11, 30; id. Fin. 4, 16, 45: “ordines,id. Phil. 1, 8, 20: “classem (discipulorum),Quint. 1, 2, 24 Spald.: “funus,Hor. Epod. 8, 12: “toros,Ov. F. 6, 668 et saep.—
c. To conduct as prisoners in a triumph: “per triumphum,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 67: “in triumpho,Plin. 7, 43, 45, § 139, v. triumphus.—
6. With the accessory idea of creation, formation, to produce, form, construct, make, fashion, shape, dispose (cf.: “struo, pono, condo, fundo): parietem per vestibulum alicujus,to erect, Cic. Mil. 27 fin.; cf. “muros,Hor. C. 4, 6, 23: “vallum ex castris ad aquam,Caes. B. C. 1, 73, 2: “fossam,id. B. G. 7, 72, 1; 7, 73, 2: “arcum,Ov. M. 3, 160: “lateres de terra,Vitr. 2, 3: “vivos vultus de marmore (with excudere spirantia aera),Verg. A. 6, 849; cf. id. ib. 7, 634; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 240; Varr. ap. Non. 283, 32; Plin. 7, 37, 38, § 125; Quint. 10, 3, 18 Spald.; Juv. 7, 237; hence, poet. also: “epos,Hor. S. 1, 10, 44: “carmen,Ov. Tr. 1, 11, 18; 3, 14, 32: “versus,id. ib. 5, 12, 63 et saep.: “liniam ex colore,Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 81; Quint. 2, 6, 2; cf. “orbem,id. 11, 3, 118: “alvum,to bring forth by clysters, Cels. 2, 12; 4, 4 et saep.: alapam alicui, qs. to fetch one a box on the ear, Phaedr. 5, 3, 2; cf. “colaphum,Quint. 6, 3, 83 Spald.: “pugnum,Dig. 47, 10, 4 et saep.; “so esp. of processions, dances, etc.: funus,Cic. Quint. 15 fin.; Ov. M. 14, 746; Verg. G. 4, 256; cf. “exsequias,Plin. 8, 42, 64, § 154: “pompam,Ov. H. 12, 152; id. F. 6, 405; id. M. 13, 699: “choros,Tib. 2, 1, 56; Hor. C. 1, 4, 5; 4, 7, 6 et saep.; cf. “choreas,Ov. M. 8, 582; 14, 520.—
7. To receive, admit, take any thing (not ante-Aug.): “cicatricem,Ov. Tr. 3, 11, 66; Liv. 29, 32, 12: “rimam,Ov. M. 4, 65: “situm,to grow rusty, Quint. 1, 2, 18: “formam,Ov. M. 1, 402: “colorem,id. ib. 3, 485; cf. “pallorem,to grow pale, id. ib. 8, 760: “nomina,Hor. C. 3, 27, 76: “notam,id. ib. 4, 2, 59 et saep.
II. Trop.
A. In gen., to lead, guide, draw, conduct: “progredimur quo ducit quemque voluntas,Lucr. 2, 258; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 27; 1, 6, 57: “ad strepitum citharae cessatum ducere curam,id. ib. 1, 2, 31: “Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus,id. C. 4, 8, 34; cf. Quint. 12, 1, 26: “per quaedam parva sane ducant (futurum oratorem),id. 1, 10, 5; cf. id. 1, 1, 27; 1, 5, 58.—Prov.: “ducunt volentem fata, nolentem trahunt,Sen. Ep. 107.—
B. In partic.
2. To lead a person, as regards his will or opinions, in any direction; to move, incite, induce, allure, in a good or bad sense (most freq. in the pass.): “ita me ad credendum tua ducit oratio,Cic. Tusc. 2, 18: “nos ducit scholarum consuetudo,Quint. 4, 2, 28; 5, 11, 19; cf. id. 9, 1, 21: “ducit te species,Hor. S. 2, 2, 35 et saep.: “declamatores quosdam perversa ducit ambitio, ut, etc.,Quint. 10, 7, 21.—In the pass.: “si quis statuarum honore aut gloria ducitur,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 58 fin.: “eloquentiae laude,id. Or. 32, 115: “quaestu et lucro,id. Tusc. 5, 3, 9: “hoc errore ut, etc.,id. Off. 1, 41; cf.: “litteris eorum et urbanitate, ut, etc.,id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120: “omnes trahimur et ducimur ad cognitionis et scientiae cupiditatem,id. Off. 1, 6 et saep.—
b. In a bad sense, to cheat, deceive, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 26; id. Capt. 4, 2, 7; Ter. And. 4, 1, 20; id. Ph. 3, 2, 15; Prop. 2, 17, 1 (3, 8, 1 M.); Ov. H. 19, 13; id. M. 3, 587 (with decipere).—
3. With regard to time, to draw out, extend, protract, prolong: “bellum,Caes. B. G. 1, 38, 4; id. B. C. 2, 18, 6; 2, 37, 5 sq.; Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 2; Liv. 22, 25 et saep.; cf.: “bellum longius,Caes. B. C. 1, 64, 2; 3, 42, 3: “bellum in hiemem,id. ib. 1, 61, 3: “eam rem longius,id. B. G. 7, 11, 4; cf.: “rem prope in noctem,id. B. C. 3, 51, 7: “rem leniter,Liv. 3, 41 et saep. Also transf., of time itself: “tempus,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 11; Nep. Them. 7: “diem ex die,Caes. B. G. 1, 16, 4; and of persons who are put off, delayed: “ubi se diutius duci intellexit,id. ib. 1, 16, 5.—Less freq. (mostly poet.),
b. In gen., of time, to pass, spend, enjoy: “aetatem in litteris,Cic. Fin. 5, 19, 50; so, “aetatem,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 202: “vitam,id. Epod. 17, 63; Sen. Ep. 45, 10; cf. Verg. A. 2, 641 (where, shortly before, vitam producere): “noctes,Prop. 1, 11, 5; Plin. Ep. 6, 31, 13: “somnos,Verg. A. 4, 560.—
4. In mercant. lang., to calculate, compute, reckon: age nunc summam sumptus duc, Lucil. ap. Non. 283, 30: “minimum ut sequamur, quoniam XC. medimnūm milia duximus, accedant eo, etc.,Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 49; id. Att. 6, 1, 5 and 16; 6, 2, 7; Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 11; Gell. 1, 20, 5.—
b. Transf. beyond the mercant. sphere.
(α). Rationem alicujus, to consider, calculate, care for one's advantage or interest (a favorite expression of Cicero): “duxi meam rationem, quam tibi facile me probaturum arbitrabar,Cic. Att. 8, 11 D, § 7; so, “suam quoque rationem,to have respect to one's own advantage, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 48; and: “non minorem aratorum quam populi rationem,Suet. Aug. 42 fin.: “salutis meae rationem,Cic. Fam. 7, 3: “rationem officii, non commodi,id. Sest. 10, 23; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 44, 128: “unius cujusque temporis ducta ratio est,id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 16: “rationem officii atque existimationis,id. Quint. 16, 53.—
(β). In gen., to reckon, consider, hold, account, esteem as any thing (cf. aestimo and existimo; “very freq. in prose and poetry): parvi id ducebat,Cic. Fin. 2, 8, 24: “pro nihilo aliquid,Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 85; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 16 fin.; id. Tusc. 5, 32, 90; cf. Auct. Her. 4, 20, 28: “ea pro falsis ducit,Sall. C. 3, 2; cf.: “innocentiam pro malevolentia,id. ib. 12, 1: “vos eritis judices, Laudin' an vitio duci id factum oportuit,Ter. Ad. prol. 5; so, “aliquid honori,Sall. J. 11, 3: “aliquid laudi, Nep. praef. § 4: aliquem despicatui,Cic. Fl. 27, 65: nihil praeter virtutem in bonis ducere (for which, shortly after, in bonis habere = numerare), Cic. Fin. 3, 3; “aliquem in numero hostium,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25 fin.; Caes. B. G. 6, 32, 1; cf. ib. 6, 23, 8; without in, ib. 6, 21, 2; cf.: “aliquem loco affinium,Sall. J. 14, 1 Kritz. N. cr.: aliquid testimonii loco, Quint. 5, 9, 10: “tutelae nostrae duximus, cum Africo bello urgerentur,Liv. 21, 41; cf.: “officii duxit exorare filiae patrem, etc.,Suet. Tib. 11: “faceret, quod e republica fideque sua duceret,id. ib. 25, 7 et saep.: “malum cum amici tuum ducis malum,Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 48; cf.: “Archytas iracundiam seditionem quandam animi vere ducebat,Cic. Rep. 1, 38: “eorum, quos idoneos ducebat, consilium habet,Sall. J. 62, 4: “nil rectum nisi quod placuit sibi ducunt,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 83.— With acc. and inf.: “sic equidem ducebam animo rebarque futurum,Verg. A. 6, 690: “ut omnia tua in te posita esse ducas humanosque casus virtute inferiores putes,Cic. Lael. 2, 7, 19 fin.; id. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17; 1, 38; 3, 9 (three times); Sall. J. 93, 5; Liv. 22, 14, 6; 22, 59, 5; Caes. B. G. 1, 3, 2; 4, 30, 2; 6, 18 et saep.—Here too probably belongs the much disputed passage: ludos et inania honoris medio rationis atque abundantiae duxit (= ludos publicos cum aliis rebus quae ad inania honoris pertinent, duxit, i. e. existimavit habendos et ponendos in medio rationis atque abundantiae, ut inter rationem, quae plane spernit inania, et abundantiam, quae eadem ostentat, media via incederet), he thought right to manage them in a middle course between reason and profusion, Tac. Agr. 6 fin., v. Dübner and Orell. ad h. l.
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