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dūrus , a, um, adj. etym. dub.; cf. Sanscr. root dhar, to fix, confirm,
I.hard.
I. Lit.
A. Orig. as affecting the sense of feeling: “et validi silices ac duri robora ferri,Lucr. 2, 449; so, “silex,Verg. A. 6, 471: “ferrum,Hor. C. 3, 11, 31: “cautes,Verg. A. 4, 366; Ov. M. 4, 672: “bipennes,Hor. C. 4, 4, 57: “ligones,id. Epod. 5, 30: “aratrum,id. S. 1, 1, 28: “compes,id. Epod. 4, 4: “pellis,Lucr. 6, 1195; Verg. G. 3, 502: “arva,id. ib. 2, 341; cf. “cutis,Ov. M. 8, 805: “alvus,Cels. 6, 18, 9; Hor. S. 2, 4, 27: aqua, hard, i. e. containing much earthy matter, Cels. 2, 30 fin.; cf. “muria,saturated with salt, Col. 6, 30 fin.; 12, 6, 1 et saep., v. muria: “dumeta,” i. e. rough, Ov. M. 1, 105 et saep.: “gallina,tough, not yet boiled tender, Hor. S. 2, 4, 18; cf.: “fungi, qui in coquendo duriores fient,Plin. 22, 23, 47, § 99 et saep.— Sup.: “ladanum durissimum tactu,Plin. 26, 8, 30, § 48; cf.: “durissimus tophus vel carbunculus,Col. 3, 11, 7 et saep.—As subst.: dūrum , i, n.
(α). E duro (sc. ligno), of the hardened wood of the vine, Col. 3, 6, 2; 3, 10, 15; 21 et saep.; cf. duramentum.—
(β). Durum cacare, Mart. 3, 89, 2.—
B. Transf.
1. As affecting the sense of taste: “vinum, opp. suavis,hard, harsh, Pall. Oct. 14, 5; cf.: “sapor Bacchi,Verg. G. 4, 102: “acetum,Ser. Samm. 40 and 351.—
2. As affecting the ear: “vocis genera permulta: ... grave acutum, flexibile durum,Cic. N. D. 2, 58, 146; cf. Quint. 11, 3, 15 and 32.—Hence, in rhet., hard, rough (cf. asper, II.): “aspera et dura et dissoluta et hians oratio,Quint. 8, 6, 62: “consonantes,id. 11, 3, 35: “syllabae,id. 12, 10, 30: “verba,id. 8, 3, 32 sq.; cf. id. 1, 5, 72: “compositio,id. 9, 4, 142.
II. Trop.
2. But sometimes as a praiseworthy quality, opp. to soft, weakly, hardy, vigorous (esp. freq. in poets): “fortes et duri Spartiatae,Cic. Tusc. 1, 43; cf.: “Ligures, durum in armis genus,Liv. 27, 48: “durum genus experiensque laborum,hardy, Ov. M. 1, 414: “unde homines nati, durum genus,Verg. G. 1, 63 (cf. λᾶας and λαός, Pind. Ol. 9, 71): “gens dura atque aspera cultu,a hardy race, id. A. 5, 730: “genus humanum durius, tellus quod dura creāsset,Lucr. 5, 926: “Dardanidae,Verg. A. 3, 94: “Hannibal,Hor. C. 2, 12, 2: “Iberia,id. ib. 4, 14, 50: “vindemiator,id. S. 1, 7, 29; cf.: “ilia messorum,id. Epod. 3, 4: “juvenci,Ov. M. 3, 584 et saep. —
B. Opp. to morally mild, gentle, harsh, rough, stern, unyielding, unfeeling, insensible, obstinate: “quis se tam durum agrestemque praeberet, qui, etc.,Cic. Or. 43, 148; cf.: “quis nostrum animo tam agresti et duro fuit, ut? etc.,id. Arch. 8: “neque sunt audiendi, qui virtutem duram et quasi ferream esse quandam volunt,id. Lael. 13 fin.; “ingenio esse duro atque inexorabili,Ter. Ph. 3, 2, 12: “satis pater durus fui,id. Heaut. 3, 1, 30; cf. id. Ad. 1, 1, 39; Cic. Cael. 16; Hor. S. 1, 2, 17: “Varius qui est habitus judex durior,Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62: cf. Caes. B. C. 3, 20, 4: “mala vel duri lacrimas motura Catonis,Luc. 9, 50: duriorem se praebere alicujus miserae et afflictae fortunae, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 13 A (cf. opp. at the end of the letter: se placabiliorem praebere): “duri hominis vel potius vix hominis videtur, periculum capitis inferre multis,Cic. Off. 2, 14, 50; Hor. C. 4, 1, 7: “quid nos dura refugimus aetas?id. ib. 1, 35, 34: “ōs durum,shameless, impudent, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 36 Ruhnk.; Cic. Quint. 24 fin.; Ov. M. 5, 451: “cor,Vulg. Sirach, 3, 27 et saep. Of the austerity of the Stoic mode of living, v. above, A.—
C. Of things, hard, severe, toilsome; troublesome, burdensome, disagreeable; adverse, unfortunate: “opulento homini hoc servitus dura est,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 12; so, “servitus,Cic. Rep. 1, 44; 2, 25; cf. “lex,Plaut. Merc. 4, 6, 1: “condicio,Cic. Rab. Post. 6 fin.: “provincia,Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 23; cf. “partes,id. Eun. 2, 3, 62; Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8 A: “dolor,Lucr. 3, 460: “labor,id. 5, 1272: “subvectiones,Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1: “venatus,Ov. M. 4, 307: “dura cultu et aspera plaga,Liv. 45, 30 fin.: “durissimo tempore anni,Caes. B. G. 7, 8, 2; cf. id. B. C. 3, 25, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 5 fin.: “morbum acrem ac durum,Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 119; cf. “valetudo,Hor. S. 2, 2, 88: “dolores,Verg. A. 5, 5: “frigus,Plaut. Men. 5, 6, 10: “fames,Hor. S. 1, 2, 6: “pauperies,id. C. 4, 9, 49: “causa,Lucr. 3, 485; Quint. 4, 1, 25; Hor. S. 1, 10, 26: “nomen (opp. molle),Cic. Off. 1, 12: “verbum,id. Brut. 79, 274: “propositio,Quint. 4, 5, 5 et saep.: De. Etiamne id lex coëgit? Ph. Illud durum, Ter. Ph. 2, 1, 8; so in the neutr. sing., Quint. 11, 1, 85; 12, 1, 36; Hor. S. 1, 9, 42 et saep.; cf. “ellipt.: non vanae redeat sanguis imagini ... Durum: sed levius fit patientia, etc.,Hor. C. 1, 24, 19. In plur. subst.: dura , ōrum, n., hardships, difficulties: “siccis omnia dura deus proposuit,Hor. C. 1, 18, 3; id. Ep. 2, 1, 141; Sen. Oedip. 208; Verg. A. 8, 522: “ego dura tuli,Ov. M. 9, 544 al. (In fem. plur. ellipt., sc. partes, Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 22 very dub.).— Comp.: “hi, si quid erat durius, concurrebant,if any unusual difficulty occurred, Caes. B. G. 1, 48, 6; 5, 29, 6; id. B. C. 3, 94, 6.—Adv. posit. in two forms: dūrĭter and dūre .
A. (Acc. to 1. A.) Hardly: “juga premunt duriter colla (boum),Vitr. 10, 8.—Comp.: “durius,Vitr. 10, 15 fin.
B. (Acc. to II. A.-C.)
1. Hardly, stiffly, awkwardly: “membra moventes Duriter,Lucr. 5, 1401: “duriter,Auct. Her. 4, 10, 15; Gell. 17, 10, 15: “dure,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 66; Quint. 9, 4, 58; 10, 2, 19; Gell. 18, 11, 2.—Comp., Ov. R. Am. 337; Hor. S. 2, 3, 22; Quint. 8, 6, 24; 9, 4, 15; 117.—
b. Hardily, rigorously, austerely: “vitam parce ac duriter agebat,Ter. And. 1, 1, 47; id. Ad. 1, 1, 20; Novius ap. Non. 512.—
2. Harshly, roughly, sternly: “quam tibi ex ore orationem duriter dictis dedit,Enn. Trag. v. 348 Vahl.: “duriter,Afran. Com. v. 251 Rib.; Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 28.— Comp., Cic. Lig. 6; id. Att. 1, 1, 4; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; Caes. B. C. 1, 22 fin.; Tac. Agr. 16; id. A. 3, 52; Sen. Ep. 8; Vulg. Gen. 42, 7.—Sup., Hadrian. in Dig. 47, 14, 1.—
3. Hardly, unfavorably, unfortunately: “durius cadentibus rebus,Suet. Tib. 14 fin.
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