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frango , frēgi, fractum, 3, v. a. root in Gr. FPAT, ῥήγνυμι, ῥῆγμα, ῥωγαλέος; Goth. Brikkan; Irish brissim; Germ. brechen; Engl. break; but cf. Fick, Vergl. Wörterb. p. 182, and v. the letter F,
I.to break, break in pieces, dash to pieces, shiver, break in two (cf.: rumpo, diffringo).
I. Lit.: hastas frangit quatitque, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 3 (Ann. v. 435 ed. Vahl.); cf.: aes sonit, franguntur hastae, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 504, 33 (Trag. v. 213 ed. Vahl.): fraxinus frangitur atque abies consternitur alta, is broken, felled, id. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2 (Ann. v. 195 ed. Vahl.): “simulacra,Lucr. 6, 419: “milvo est quoddam bellum quasi naturale cum corvo: ergo alter alterius ubicumque nactus est ova, frangit,Cic. N. D. 2, 49, 125: “anulus aureus fractus et comminatus est,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 56: “compluribus navibus fractis,dashed to pieces, Caes. B. G. 4, 29, 3: “naves,Hor. A. P. 20: “navem is fregit apud Andrum insulam,Ter. And. 1, 3, 17; cf. Auct. Her. 4, 44, 57: “domus fracta conjectu lapidum,Cic. Att. 4, 3, 2: “janua frangatur, latret canis,Hor. S. 1, 2, 128: “patinam,id. ib. 2, 8, 72: “lagenam,id. ib. 81: “crystallina,Mart. 14, 111: “aulas in caput,Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 21: “corpora ad saxum,Verg. A. 3, 625: “vindices rerum capitalium laqueo gulam fregere,broke his neck, strangled him, Sall. C. 55, 5: “cervices civium Romanorum in carcere,Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 57, § 147; id. Vatin. 11, 26: “senile guttur parentis impiā manu,Hor. Epod. 3, 2: “cerebrum,Verg. A. 5, 413: “brachium,Cic. de Or. 2, 62, 253; cf. “coxam,Plin. Ep. 2, 1, 5: “crus,Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 59: “crura,Cic. Phil. 13, 12, 27; Suet. Aug. 67; id. Tib. 44; Vulg. Johan. 19, 31: “cornu in arbore,Ov. F. 5, 121: “non ego te, tigris ut aspera Gaetulusve leo, frangere persequor,to tear in pieces, Hor. C. 1, 23, 10; cf.: “indomitos ut cum Massyla per arva Armenti reges magno leo fregit hiatu, etc.,Stat. Th. 11, 28; Val. Fl. 2, 458; Plin. 8, 40, 61, § 150: “nubes in montem actae non franguntur, sed circumfunduntur,Sen. Q. N. 2, 28, 2.—
B. Transf., in gen., to break up small, to grind, bruise, crush (freq. since the Aug. per.): “glebam bidentibus,Verg. G. 2, 400; “glebas,id. ib. 3, 161: “fruges robore saxi,Lucr. 1, 882: “farra saxo,Val. Fl. 2, 448: “hordeum molis,Plin. 18, 7, 14, § 72: “granum dentibus,id. 18, 24, 54, § 196: “fabam,id. 19, 3, 15, § 40: “glandem (sues),Verg. G. 2, 72: “testes homini,Plin. 11, 49, 110, § 263: “toros,to press, throw one's self upon, Mart. 2, 59, 3; 4, 8, 6: comam in gradus, to twist, braid, Quint. 1, 6, 44: “mare montis ad ejus Radices frangit fluctus,breaks, Lucr. 6, 695; cf.: “quam (fortunam) existimo levem et imbecillam ab animo firmo et gravi tamquam fluctum a saxo frangi oportere,Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 6: “fluctus (scopulus),Luc. 6, 266: “undam,Ov. F. 4, 282: “aquas,Quint. 9, 4, 7: “amnem nando,Luc. 8, 374; cf. Sil. 3, 457; 8, 555: “iter,” i. e. turn off from it, Stat. Th. 12, 232.
II. Trop., to break down, subdue, weaken, diminish, violate; to soften, move, touch: “quem (Viriathum) C. Laelius praetor ita fregit et comminuit ferocitatemque ejus ita repressit, ut, etc.,broke down, subdued, Cic. Off. 2, 11 fin.; cf.: “fractam illam et debilitatam vim suam, etc.,id. Fam. 1, 9, 2: “quem series immensa laborum fregerit,Ov. H. 9, 6: “nationes frangere domareque,Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 33: “proeliis calamitatibusque fracti,Caes. B. G. 1, 31, 7: “victi sumus igitur, aut, si vinci dignitas non potest, fracti certe et abjecti,Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2: “te ut ulla res frangat?would break, shake thy resolution, id. Cat. 1, 9, 22; cf.: “frangi metu, cupiditate,id. Off. 1, 20, 68: “fractus ac debilitatus metu,id. de Or. 1, 26, 121: “flecti animo atque frangi,id. Sull. 6, 18: “frangi animo,id. Phil. 2, 15, 37: “dolore,id. Fin. 2, 29, 95: “misericordiā,id. Att. 7, 12, 3: “pudore,id. Tusc. 2, 21, 48 et simil.; cf. “also: aliquem auctoritate,id. ib. 1, 21 fin.: “aliquem patientiā,id. Brut. 25, 95: quae (vis) summas frangit infirmatque opes, Poët. ap. Cic. Rab. Post. 10, 28: “debilitatur ac frangitur eloquentia,Tac. Dial. 39: “mollis illa educatio, quam indulgentiam vocamus, nervos omnes et mentis et corporis frangit,Quint. 1, 2, 6: “frangitur vox,id. 11, 3, 20; cf. id. 12, 11, 2: “vox Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum,Verg. G. 4, 72: “et illa (littera), quae est sexta nostrarum (i. e. F) quoties aliquam consonantem frangit, ut in hoc ipso frangit, multo fit horridior,” i. e. weakens, Quint. 12, 10, 29 Spald. (v. the passage in its connection); cf. id. 1, 4, 11: “primum divisit ineleganter: duo enim genera quae erant, fecit tria: hoc est non dividere, sed frangere,Cic. Fin. 2, 9, 26; cf.: “frangas citius quam corrigas, quae in pravum induruerunt,Quint. 1, 3, 12: “bellum proeliis frangere,Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32: “dignitatem,id. Fam. 9, 16, 6: “hunc (pedum dolorem) abstinentiā, sanctitate vicit et fregit,Plin. Ep. 1, 12, 5: “ut equorum cursum delicati minutis passibus frangunt,Quint. 9, 4, 113: “animos frangi et debilitari molestiā,Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2: “ingenium (mala),Ov. Tr. 3, 14, 33: “sublimia pectora (Venus et vinum),id. F. 1, 301: “ego unus contudi et fregi exsultantis praedonis audaciam,Cic. Phil. 13, 13 fin.; cf. id. Fragm. ap. Non. 301, 8 (id. Rep. 3, 36 ed. Mos.): “furorem et petulantiam alicujus,id. Pis. 14, 31: “libidines,id. Leg. 3, 13, 31: “odium iramque (risus),Quint. 6, 3, 9: “impetum cogitationis (membranae),id. 10, 3, 31: “consilium alicujus,Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 4; cf.: “sententiam alicujus,id. ib. 1, 4, 1: “foedus,id. Pis. 12, 28; id. Scaur. 42: “fidem,id. Rosc. Com. 6, 16: “jura pudicitiae,Prop. 4 (5), 5, 28.mandata,Hor. Ep. 1, 13, 19: “fas,Grat. Cyneg. 451: “morantem diem mero (= breviorem reddere),to shorten, Hor. C. 2, 7, 6: “vina,” i. e. to weaken, dilute, Mart. 14, 103; Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 138: “cum frangerem jam ipse me cogeremque illa ferre toleranter,Cic. Fam. 4, 6, 2: “nec animus tantis se laboribus frangeret, neque, etc.,id. Arch. 11, 29: “ante quam calores aut frigora se fregerunt,diminished, abated, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 18; cf.: “Scaevola paulum quiescet, dum se calor frangat,Cic. de Or. 1, 62, 265: “fracti aestus et nondum orta frigora,Cels. 7, 7, 4 fin.; cf.: “fluctus se frangit,Sen. Med. 392: “glacies se frangit,id. Q. N. 4, 5, 4.—Hence, fractus , a, um, P. a., weakened, weak, feeble, faint: “jamque adeo fracta est aetas effetaque tellus Vix animalia parva creat,Lucr. 2, 1151: “quod me audis fractiorem esse animo,” i. e. more disheartened, less courageous, Cic. Att. 11, 12, 4; cf.: “spes amplificandae fortunae fractior,id. Lael. 16, 59: “in compositione fractus,powerless, feeble, Quint. 12, 10, 12; cf.: “quid est tam fractum, tam minutum, tam in ipsa concinnitate puerile?Cic. Brut. 83, 287; and: “corruptum et omnibus vitiis fractum dicendi genus,Quint. 10, 1, 125: corrupta oratio maxime comprehensione obscura, compositione fracta consistit, id. 8, 3, 57: “effeminata et fracta impudicis modis (musice),id. 1, 10, 31.
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