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frāter , tris, m. Sanscr. bhrātā; Gr. φράτηρ, φράτωρ, clansman; Goth. brothar; Engl. brother,
I.a brother.
I. Lit.: “frater mi, salve,Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 58; cf.: “mi frater, mi frater, mi frater, tune id veritus es? etc.,Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 1: “amabo te, mi frater, ne, etc.,id. ib. 1, 4, 1: “L. frater meus,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 11, § 25: “uxores habent inter se communes: et maxime fratres cum fratribus,Caes. B. G. 5, 14, 4; cf.: “fratrem a fratre renuntiatum,id. ib. 7, 33, 3: “et filius et fratris filius,id. ib. 5, 27, 2: “fratris filia,Plin. Ep. 8, 11, 1: “fratres gemini,twin-brothers, Cic. Clu. 16, 46; Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 41: “fratres gemelli,Ov. H. 8, 77; “also in the reverse order: gemini fratres,Cic. Div. 2, 43, 90; Liv. 1, 5, 6; Suet. Caes. 10; Verg. A. 7, 670; Ov. H. 17, 250 (and therefore wrongly censured by Quint.: “quaedam ordine permutato fiunt supervacua, ut fratres gemini: nam si praecesserint gemini, fratres addere non est necesse,Quint. 9, 4, 24).— Also in sing.: To. Hic ejus geminus est frater. Do. Hiccine'st? To. Ac geminissimus. Do. Di deaeque et te et geminum fratrem excrucient, Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 49 sq.: “venimus fratrem quaesitum geminum germanum meum,my full twin-brother, id. Men. 2, 1, 7; cf.: “spes mihi est, vos inventuros fratres germanos duos Geminos, una matre natos et patre uno uno die,id. ib. 5, 9, 43: “Cn. Phaenius ... frater germanus Q. Titinii,full brother, own brother, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 49, § 128; id. Font. 17, 36: “fratres uterini,brothers by the same mother, uterine brothers, Cod. Just. 5, 62, 21: fratribus illa (templa) deis fratres de gente deorum Circa Juturnae composuere lacus, the brothers of a race of gods (Tiberius and Drusus), descended from the divine brothers (Castor and Pollux), Ov. F. 1, 707.—Of the giants: “fratresque tendentes opaco Pelion imposuisse Olympo,Hor. C. 3, 4, 51: “conjurati fratres,Verg. G. 1, 280.—Poet. of dogs: “et Thous et Cyprio velox cum fratre Lycisca,Ov. M. 3, 220; Grat. Cyneg. 299.
II. Transf.
A. Like our word brother, as a familiar appellation of friends and lovers.
2. In partic.
a. Of lovers: “nisi intercederent mihi inimicitiae cum istius mulieris viro: fratre volui dicere: semper hic erro,Cic. Cael. 13, 32; cf. Tib. 3, 1, 23; Mart. 2, 4, 3; 10, 65, 14 (cf. soror); Petr. 9, 2.—
b. In publicists' lang., an honorary title given to allies: “Aedui, fratres consanguineique saepenumero a senatu appellati,Caes. B. G. 1, 32, 2; 2, 3, 5: “non modo hostes, sed etiam fratres nostri Aedui,Cic. Fam. 7, 10 fin.: “Aedui fratres nostri pugnant,id. Att. 1, 19, 2 (cf. fraternitas). —
B. Fratres for brother and sister (as also the Gr. ἀδελφοί): “Lucius et Titia fratres emancipati a patre,Dig. 10, 2, 38: “tres fratres, Titius, Naevius et Seia,ib. 2, 14, 35: “fratrum incestus, amor,Tac. A. 12, 4: “INFANTIBVS HILARIONI ET REVOCATAE FRATRIBVS,Inscr. Orell. 4583.—
C. Like Gr. ἀδελφός, of near kindred.
1. Frater patruelis, a cousin, a father's brother's son: “hic illius frater patruelis et socer T. Torquatus,Cic. Planc. 11, 27; cf.: “L. Cicero frater noster, cognatione patruelis, amore germanus,id. Fin. 5, 1, 1; cf. Dig. 38, 10, 1, § 10; “for which simply frater,Cic. Clu. 24, 60; id. Att. 1, 5, 1; Cat. 66, 22; Ov. H. 8, 28; id. M. 13, 31; Tac. A. 3, 38; 11, 9; Just. 17, 3; Cic. Post Red. in Sen. 10, 25.—
2. Perh. also for levir (cf. the Fr. beaufrère), a brother-in-law, sister's husband: “prope attonitus ipso congressu Numida, gratias de fratris filio remisso agit,Liv. 28, 35, 8 (cf. id. 27, 19, 9).—
D. Fratres Arvales, a college of priests; v. arvalis.—
E. Frater Solis et Lunae, the title of the Parthian kings, Amm. 17, 5; 23, 5.—
F. Of things of a like kind (so, too, the Gr. ὰδελφός; cf. “also soror): aspicies illic positos ex ordine fratres (i. e. libros),Ov. Tr. 1, 1, 107; so Mart. 12, 3, 6.—As a proper name: “(In Mauretania) montes sunt alti, qui ... ob numerum Septem, ob similitudinem Fratres nuncupantur,Mel. 1, 5, 5; Plin. 5, 2, 1, § 18; Sol. 25 (in Ptolemy, Ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοί; cf. Mann. Afr. 2, p. 459).
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