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fraus , fraudis (
I.gen. plur. fraudium, Cic. Off. 3, 18, 75; id. Pis. 19, 44; Dig. 9, 2, 23, § 4 al.: “fraudum,Tac. A. 6, 21; Gell. 14, 2, 6; Claud. Laud. Stil. 2, 214; archaic form dat. sing. frudi, Lucr. 6, 187 Lachm.; cf. acc. frudem, id. 2, 187; acc. to Cod. Quadrat.; nom. plur. frudes, Naev. B. Pun. 1, 1), f. perh. root dhru-, bend, injure; Sanscr. dhru-ti, deception; cf. Gr. τιτρώσκω, wound, θραύω, break, and Lat. frustum, frustra, Corss. Ausspr. 1, 150; Georg Curtius Gr. Etym. p. 222, a cheating, deceit, imposition, fraud (class. in sing. and plur.; syn.: dolus, fallacia, calliditas, etc.).
I. Lit.: “cum duobus modis, id est aut vi aut fraude fiat injuria, fraus quasi vulpeculae, vis leonis videtur: utrumque homini alienissimum, sed fraus odio digna majore,Cic. Off. 1, 13 fin.: “nonne ab imis unguibus usque ad verticem summum ex fraude, fallaciis, mendaciis constare totus videtur?id. Rosc. Com. 7, 20: “fraus fidem in parvis sibi praestruit, ut, cum operae pretium sit, cum mercede magna fallat,Liv. 28, 42: “hostes sine fide tempus atque occasionem fraudis ac doli quaerunt,Caes. B. C. 2, 14, 1: “fraude ac dolo aggressus est (urbem),Liv. 1, 53, 4: “per summam fraudem et malitiam,Cic. Quint. 18, 56: “in fraudem obsequio impelli,id. Lael. 24, 89: “metuo in commune, ne quam fraudem frausus siet,Plaut. As. 2, 2, 20: “fraudis, sceleris, parricidii, perjurii plenus,id. Rud. 3, 2, 37: “Litavici fraude perspecta,Caes. B. G. 7, 40, 6: “legi fraudem facere,” i. e. to circumvent, evade, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 9; cf.: contra legem facit, qui id facit, quod lex prohibet; “in fraudem vero legis, qui salvis verbis legis sententiam ejus circumvenit. Fraus enim legi fit, ubi, quod fieri noluit, fieri autem non vetuit, id fit, etc.,Dig. 1, 3, 29 and 30: “quod emancipando filium fraudem legi fecisset,Liv. 7, 16 fin.: “facio fraudem senatusconsulto,Cic. Att. 4, 12: “inventum deverticulum est in fraude earum (legum), gallinaceos quoque pascendi,Plin. 10, 50, 71, § 140: “si quid in fraudem creditorum factum sit,Dig. 42, 8, 6, § 8 al.: “sese dedere sine fraude constituunt,without deception, honorably, Caes. B. C. 2, 22, 1: “sine fraude Punicum emittere praesidium,Liv. 24, 47, 8 (in another sense under II. C. 2.): “audax Iapeti genus (Prometheus) Ignem fraude malā gentibus intulit,Hor. C. 1, 3, 28: “aliter enim ad sororis filios quam concordiae fraude pervenire non poterat,by the deceitful pretence of unanimity, Just. 24, 2: “bestiae cibum ad fraudem suam positum aspernuntur,Liv. 41, 23.—In plur.: “exagitabantur omnes ejus fraudes atque fallaciae,deceptions, Cic. Clu. 36, 101: “qui fons est fraudium, maleficiorum, scelerum omnium,id. Off. 3, 18, 75: “noctem peccatis et fraudibus objice nubem,Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 62: “(Europe) scatentem Beluis pontum mediasque fraudes Palluit audax,id. C. 3, 27, 28.
II. Transf.
A. Concr., of persons as a term of reproach, a cheater, deceiver, a cheat (ante-class and rare): “fur, fugitive, fraus populi, Fraudulente,Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 131: “gerro, iners, fraus, heluo, ganeo,Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 10.—
C. In pass. signif., a being deceived, selfdeception, delusion, error, mistake (class.): “is me in hanc illexit fraudem,Plaut. Mil. 5, 42: “imperitos in fraudem illicis,Ter. And. 5, 4, 8 Ruhnk.; cf.: oculi, supercilia, frons, vultus denique totus ... hic in fraudem homines impulit; “hic eos, quibus erat ignotus, decepit, fefellit, induxit,Cic. Pis. 1, 1: “nos in fraudem induimus frustraminis ipsi,Lucr. 4, 417: “quemquam pellicere in fraudem,id. 5, 1005: “jacere in fraudem,id. 4, 1206: in fraudem deducere, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 4: “in fraudem incidere,Cic. Att. 11, 16, 1; cf.: “in fraudem in re publica delabi,id. de Or. 3, 60, 226: “ne tibi dent in eo flammarum corpora fraudem,Lucr. 2, 187: “ne tibi sit frudi, quod nos inferne videmus, etc.,id. 6, 187: “quem (Euryalum) jam manus omnis Fraude loci et noctis ... oppressum rapit,deception as to, ignorance of, Verg. A. 9, 397.—
2. Injury, detriment, damage.
(α). Prop., produced by deception or ignorance: aliud fraus est, aliud poena; “fraus enim sine poena esse potest, poena sine fraude esse non potest. Poena est noxae vindicta, fraus et ipsa noxa dicitur et quasi poenae quaedam praeparatio,Dig. 50, 16, 131.—
(β). Injury, hurt, harm, in gen. (in the best prose confined to the phrases, sine fraude and fraudi esse; v. infra): “tuis nunc cruribus scapulisque fraudem capitalem hinc creas,Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 23: “id mihi fraudem tulit,Cic. Att. 7, 26, 2: “esse alicui fraudi aut crimini,to tend to his injury, id. Mur. 35, 73; cf.: “quae res nemini umquam fraudi fuit,id. Clu. 33, 91; id. Att. 5, 21, 12; id. Phil. 5, 12, 34; 8, 11, 33; id. Rosc. Am. 17, 49: “latum ad populum est, ne C. Servilio fraudi esset, quod, etc.,Liv. 30, 19, 9 al.: sine fraude, or archaic SE (SED) FRAVDE, without injury, without damage, without risk (= sine damno, sine noxa): SI PLVS MINVSVE SECVERVNT SE FRAVDE ESTO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 49; “v. sine: rex respondit: QVOD SINE FRAVDE MEA POPVLIQVE ROMANI QVIRITIVM FIAT, FACIO,Liv. 1, 24, 5: “ceterae multitudini diem statuit, ante quam sine fraude liceret ab armis discedere,Sall. C. 36, 2; cf. Liv. 26, 12, 5; Hor. C. 2, 19, 20; id. C. S. 41: “quis deus in fraudem, quae dura potentia nostra Egit?Verg. A. 10, 72: “jam nosces, ventosa ferat cui gloria fraudem,id. ib. 11, 708.
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