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gĕnus , ĕris, n. = γένος, root GEN, gigno, gens,
I.birth, descent, origin; and concr., a race, stock, etc. (cf.: familia, gens, stirps).
I. Lit.
B. In partic., birth, for high or noble birth (mostly poet.): “cum certi propter divitias aut genus aut aliquas opes rem publicam tenent, est factio,Cic. Rep. 3, 14: pol mihi fortuna magis nunc defit quam genus, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44 (Trag. v. 394 Vahl.): “et genus et virtus, nisi cum re vilior alga est,Hor. S. 2, 5, 8; cf.: “et genus et formam regina pecunia donat,id. Ep. 1, 6, 37: “non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te Restituet pietas,id. C. 4, 7, 23: “jactes et genus et nomen inutile,id. ib. 1, 14, 13; cf.: “cui genus et quondam nomen natique fuissent,Verg. A. 5, 621: “nunc jam nobis patribus vobisque plebei promiscuus consulatus patet, nec generis, ut ante, sed virtutis est praemium,Liv. 7, 32, 14; cf. id. 4, 4, 7.
II. Transf.
A. Like gens and stirps, a descendant, offspring, child; and collect., descendants, posterity, race (poet.): neve tu umquam in gremium extollas liberorum ex te genus, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 46, 155 (Trag. v. 347 Vahl.): “credo equidem, genus esse deorum,Verg. A. 4, 12: “Uraniae genus, Hymen,” i. e. her son, Cat. 61, 2: “audax Iapeti,” i. e. his son Prometheus, Hor. C. 1, 3, 27: “Jovis,” i. e. Perseus, Ov. M. 4, 609; cf. also Prop. 2, 2, 9; Hor. C. 2, 14, 18: “genus Adrasti,” i. e. Diomede, grandson of Adrastus, Ov. F. 6, 433; “so of a grandson,id. M. 2, 743; cf. “nepotum,Hor. C. 3, 17, 4: “Tantali genus,id. ib. 2, 18, 37: “Danai,id. ib. 2, 14, 18: “Messi clarum genus Osci,id. S. 1, 5, 54: “ab alto Demissum genus Aenea,” i. e. Octavianus, as the adopted son of Julius Cœsar, id. ib. 2, 5, 63: “sive neglectum genus et nepotes Respicis auctor,” i. e. the Romans, id. C. 1, 2, 35; cf. ib. 3, 6, 18: “regium genus,id. ib. 2, 4, 15. —
B. Of an assemblage of objects (persons, animals, plants, inanimate or abstract things) which are related or belong together in consequence of a resemblance in natural qualities; a race, stock, class, sort, species, kind (in this signif. most freq. in all periods and kinds of writing).
1. In gen.
a. Of living things: ne genus humanum temporis longinquitate occideret, propter hoc marem cum femina esse coniunctum, Cic. ap. Col. 12, 1 (Fragm. Cic. 1, 5 Baiter): “quod ex infinita societate generis humani ita contracta res est, etc.,of the human race, Cic. Lael. 5, 20; cf. id. Rep. 1, 2 fin.: “o deorum quicquid in caelo regit Terras et humanum genus,Hor. Epod. 5, 2; “for which: consulere generi hominum,Cic. Rep. 3, 12; cf.: “cum omni hominum genere,id. ib. 2, 26; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 7: “solivagum genus,Cic. Rep. 1, 25: potens vir cum inter sui corporis homines tum etiam ad plebem, quod haudquaquam inter id genus contemptor ejus habebatur, i. e. among the Plebeians, Liv. 6, 34, 5: Graium genus, the Grecian race, Enn. ap. Prob. ad Verg. E. 6, 31 (Ann. v. 149 Vahl.): “virtus est propria Romani generis atque seminis,Cic. Phil. 4, 5, 13; cf. id. Ac. 2, 27, 86: “Ubii, paulo quam sunt ejusdem generis et ceteris humaniores,Caes. B. G. 4, 3, 3; cf. “also: impellit alios (Aeduos) iracundia et temeritas, quae maxime illi hominum generi est innata,race of men, id. ib. 7, 42, 2; so, like gens, of nations, peoples, tribes: ferox, Sall. Fragm. ap. Arus. Mess. s. v. insolens, p. 241 Lind. (Hist. 1, 14 Gerl.); Liv. 34, 7, 6: “implacidum (Genauni),Hor. C. 4, 14, 10: “durum ac velox (Ligures),Flor. 2, 3, 4: “omne in paludes diffugerat,id. 3, 10, 14: “Graecorum,Cic. Fl. 4, 9: “Numidarum,Liv. 30, 12, 18: “genus omne nomenque Macedonum,id. 13, 44, 6; Nep. Reg. 2: “Italici generis multi mortales,Sall. J. 47, 1: “Illyriorum,Liv. 27, 32, 4; 27, 48, 10; 42, 47 fin.: “Scytharum,Just. 2, 3, 16; Tac. H. 2, 4; Suet. Ner. 37; Vell. 2, 118, 1.—In plur.: “conventus is, qui ex variis generibus constaret,Caes. B. C. 2, 36, 1: “olim isti fuit generi quondam quaestus apud saeclum prius ... est genus hominum, qui se primos esse omnium rerum volunt,class of men, profession, Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 15 and 17: “firmi et stabiles et constantes (amici), cujus generis est magna penuria,Cic. Lael. 17, 62: “saepius genus ejus hominis (sc. procuratoris rei publicae) erit in reliqua nobis oratione tractandum,id. Rep. 2, 29 fin.; cf.: “genus aliud tyrannorum,id. ib. 1, 44: “judicum genus et forma,id. Phil. 5, 5, 13: “istius generis asoti,id. Fin. 2, 8, 23; cf.: “omnium ejus generis poëtarum haud dubie proximus,Quint. 10, 1, 85: “liberrimum hominum,id. 10, 12, 2, § 22: “irritabile vatum,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 102: “hoc omne (ambubajarum, etc.),id. S. 1, 2, 2: “hominum virile, muliebre,Cic. Inv. 1, 24, 35: “equidem fabulam et fictam rem ducebam esse, virorum omne genus in aliqua insula conjuratione muliebri ab stirpe sublatum esse,Liv. 34, 2, 3: “cedat consulari generi praetorium,Cic. Planc. 6, 15: “ad militare genus = ad milites,Liv. 24, 32, 2: “alia militaris generis turba,id. 44, 45, 13: “castellani, agreste genus,id. 34, 27, 9 Weissenb. ad loc.—Sing. with plur. predicate: “Ministrantibus sibi omni genere turpium personarum,Capitol. Ver. 4.—In plur.: “eorum hominum ... genera sunt duo,Caes. B. G. 6, 13, 1: “tria auditorum,Quint. 3, 4, 6.— Repeated in the relative-clause: “duo genera semper in hac civitate fuerunt ... quibus ex generibus,Cic. Sest. 45, 96.—In the acc., of description (v. Roby's Gram. 2, p. 42 sq.): “quot et quod genus pastores habendi,of what kind, Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1: “quod genus ii sunt, etc.,Auct. Her. 2, 30, 48; cf. in the foll.—
(β). Of animals, plants, etc.: genus altivolantum, the race of birds, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 84 Vahl.); cf.: genu' pennis condecoratum, id. Fragm. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 59: “lanigerum, id. Fragm. ap. Paul. ex Fest. s. v. Cyprio, p. 59 Müll.: squamigerum,Lucr. 1, 162; cf. “piscium,Hor. C. 1, 2, 9: “silvestre,Lucr. 5, 1411: “omne ferarum,id. 5, 1338: “acre leonum,id. 5, 862: “malefici generis plurima animalia,Sall. J. 17, 6: “diversum confusa genus panthera camelo,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 195: “animantūm propagare genus,to propagate the race, Lucr. 1, 195: “ad genus faciendum,Just. 2, 9 fin.: “juxta genus suum,Vulg. Gen. 1, 11 saep.— Plur.: “quae vero et quam varia genera bestiarum vel cicurum vel ferarum!Cic. N. D. 2, 39, 99: “piscium genera,Quint. 5, 10, 21.—In the acc., of description: “porticus avibus omne genus oppletae,Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 11: “pascuntur omne genus objecto frumento,id. ib. 3, 6: “boves et id genus pecua,App. M. 2, p. 115, 4; id. Flor. p. 37. —
b. Of inanim. and abstr. things, kind, sort, description, class, order, character: “genus ullum materiaï,Lucr. 2, 304: “cum is (sol) quoque efficiat, ut omnia floreant et in suo quaeque genere pubescant,Cic. N. D. 2, 15, 41: “naves omni genere armorum ornatissimae,Caes. B. G. 3, 14, 2: “cibi genus,id. ib. 4, 1, 9: “cum omni genere commeatus,Liv. 30, 36, 2: “frugum,id. 38, 15, 9: “hoc sphaerae genus,Cic. Rep. 1, 14: “hoc triplex rerum publicarum genus,id. ib. 2, 23: “regale civitatis,id. ib.; cf.: “totum regiae civitatis,id. ib. 2, 29: “novum imperii,id. ib. 2, 32: “ipsum istud genus orationis exspecto,id. ib. 1, 24 fin.; cf.: dulce orationis, id. Or. 13, 42: “qua re esset hoc bellum genere ipso necessarium,id. de Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; cf.: “genus hoc erat pugnae, quo, etc.,Caes. B. G. 1, 48, 4: “potestas annua (consulum) genere ipso ac jure regia,Cic. Rep. 2, 32: “genus vitae ... genus aetatis,id. Off. 1, 32, 117: “optimum emendandi,Quint. 10, 4, 2: “dicendi,Cic. Off. 1, 1, 3; Quint. 8, 3, 56; 12, 10, 69: “simplex rectumque loquendi,id. 9, 3, 3: “omnis generis tormenta,Liv. 32, 16, 10: “praeda ingens omnis generis,id. 27, 5, 9; so, “omnis generis, with tela,id. 38, 26, 4; “with naves,id. 34, 8, 5; “with eloquentia,id. 39, 40, 7, etc.—Repeated in the relative-clause: “erat haec (ratio) ex eodem genere, quod ego maxime genus ex sociorum litteris reperire cupiebam,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 74, § 183.—In plur.: “Caesar haec genera munitionis instituit,Caes. B. G. 7, 72, 1: “disserere de generibus et de rationibus civitatum,Cic. Rep. 2, 11; cf. id. ib. 1, 26; “28: genera juris institutorum, morum consuetudinumque describere,id. ib. 3, 10: “genera furandi,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 18.—In the acc., of description: omne, hoc, id, quod genus, for omnis, ejus, hujus, cujus generis, of every, of this, of which kind: “sub urbe hortum omne genus, coronamenta omne genus,Cato, R. R. 8, 2; Varr. R. R. 1, 29, 1: “omne genus simulacra feruntur,Lucr. 4, 735: “si hoc genus rebus non proficitur,Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 23; id. L. L. 9, § 110 Müll.; Lucr. 6, 917 and Hor. S. 2, 6, 44: “in id genus verbis,Varr. L. L. 10, § 79; 8, 7, 108, § 17: “in id genus libris,Gell. 3, 8, 1: “scis me ante orationes aut aliquid id genus solitum scribere,Cic. Att. 13, 12, 3: “vitanda sunt illa, quae propinqua videntur: quod genus, fidentiae contrarium est diffidentia, etc.,for example, id. Inv. 2, 54, 165; so ib. 2, 52, 157; 2, 54, 162; 2, 57, 172; Lucr. 4, 271; 6, 1058: “lege jus est id quod populi jussu sanctum est, quod genus: ut in jus eas cum voceris,Auct. Her. 2, 13, 19; cf. “ib. sqq.— In gen.: i. q. res or aliquid: ut in omni genere hujus populi (Graeci) consuetudinem videretur imitatus,in all respects, in everything, Cic. Rep. 2, 20; cf.: “innumerabiles res sunt, in quibus te quotidie in omni genere desiderem,id. Q. Fr. 2, 2 fin.: “incredibile est, quam me in omni genere delectarit,id. Att. 16, 5, 2: “medici assiduitas et tota domus in omni genere diligens,id. ib. 12, 33, 2; “7, 1, 2: qui in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, is ineptus dicitur,in any respect whatever, id. de Or. 2, 4, 17: “qua de re et de hoc genere toto pauca cognosce,id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 4.—Adverb.: in genus, in general, generally: “sermones in genus communes,Gell. 4, 1 fin.
2. In partic.
a. In philos. lang., opp. partes, and comprising them within itself, a general term, logical genus: “genus est id, quod sui similes communione quadam, specie autem differentes, duas aut plures complectitur partes,Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 189; cf.: genus est, quod plures partes amplectitur, ut animal; “pars est, quae subest generi, ut equus. Sed saepe eadem res alii genus, alii pars est: nam homo animalis pars est, Thebani aut Trojani genus,id. de Inv. 1, 22, 32: genus est, quod partes aliquas amplectitur, ut cupiditas; “pars est, quae subest generi, ut cupiditati amor, avaritia,id. ib. 1, 28, 42; cf. “also: genus est notio ad plures differentias pertinens,id. Top. 7, 31: “nec vero sine philosophorum disciplina genus et speciem cujusque rei cernere neque eam definiendo explicare nec tribuere in partes possumus, etc.,id. Or. 4, 16; cf. ib. 33, 117: “formae dicendi specie dispares, genere laudabiles,id. de Or. 3, 9, 34: “perturbationes sunt genere quatuor, partibus plures,id. Tusc. 3, 11, 24; cf. ib. 5, 25, 71: “et conjuncta quaeremus, et genera et partes generibus subjectas, et similitudines, etc.,id. de Or. 2, 39, 166; “opp. species and pars,Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 3.—
b. In gram., gender: transversi sunt (ordines) qui ab recto casu obliqui declinantur, ut albus, albi, albo; “directi sunt, qui ab recto casu in rectos declinantur, ut albus, alba, album. Transversorum ordinum partes appellantur casus, directorum genera: utrisque inter se implicatis forma,Varr. L. L. 10, § 22 Müll.: “quod ad verborum temporalium rationem attinet, cum partes sint quatuor: temporum, personarum, generum, divisionum, etc.,ib. 9, § 95: “in nominibus tria genera,Quint. 1, 4, 23: “barbarismum fieri per numeros aut genera,id. 1, 5, 16; “9, 3, 6: in verbis quoque quis est adeo imperitus, ut ignoret genera et qualitates, etc.,id. 1, 4, 27.
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