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gĕro , gessi, gestum (
I.Part. gen. plur. sync. gerentum, Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 13; imper. ger, like dic, duc, fac, fer, Cat. 27, 2), 3, v. a. root gas-, to come, go; Zend, jah, jahaiti, come; gero (for geso), in caus. sense, to cause to come; cf. Gr. βαστάζω, from βαστος = gestus, to bear about with one, to bear, carry, to wear, have (in the lit. signif. mostly poet., not in Cic., Cæs., Sall., or Quint.; but instead of it ferre, portare, vehere, sustinere, etc.; but in the trop. signif. freq. and class.).
I. Lit.
A. In gen.: “(vestem ferinam) qui gessit primus,Lucr. 5, 1420; so, “vestem,Ov. M. 11, 276 (with induere vestes), Nep. Dat. 3; cf.: “coronam Olympiacam capite,Suet. Ner. 25: “ornamenta,id. Caes. 84: “angues immixtos crinibus,Ov. M. 4, 792: “clipeum (laeva),id. ib. 4, 782; cf.: “galeam venatoriam in capite, clavam dextra manu, copulam sinistra,Nep. Dat. 3: “ramum, jaculum,Ov. M. 12, 442: “spicea serta,id. ib. 2, 28: “vincla,id. ib. 4, 681: “venabula corpore fixa,id. ib. 9, 206; cf.: “tela (in pectore fixus),id. ib. 6, 228: “Vulcanum (i. e. ignem) in cornu conclusum,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 185: “spolia ducis hostium caesi suspensa fabricato ad id apte ferculo gerens,Liv. 1, 10, 5; cf.: “Horatius trigemina spolia prae se gerens,id. 1, 26, 2: “onera,Varr. L. L. 6, § 77 Müll.: uterum or partum gerere, to be pregnant, be with young; so, gerere partum, Plin. 8, 47, 72, § 187: “uterum,id. 8, 40, 62, § 151: “centum fronte oculos centum cervice gerebat Argus,Ov. Am. 3, 4, 19: “lumen unum media fronte,id. M. 13, 773: “cornua fronte,id. ib. 15, 596: “virginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma,Verg. A. 1, 315: “virginis ora,Ov. M. 5, 553; cf.: “quae modo bracchia gessit, Crura gerit,id. ib. 5, 455 sq.: “Coae cornua matres Gesserunt tum,” i. e. were turned into cows, id. ib. 7, 364: “principio (morbi) caput incensum fervore gerebant,Lucr. 6, 1145: “qui umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu,Verg. A. 6, 772: “tempora tecta pelle lupi,Ov. M. 12, 380: “(Hector) squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crines Vulneraque illa gerens, quae, etc.,Verg. A. 2, 278: “capella gerat distentius uber,Hor. S. 1, 1, 110.—
B. In partic. (very rare).
1. With respect to the term. ad quem, to bear, carry, bring to a place: “(feminae puerique) saxa in muros munientibus gerunt,Liv. 28, 19, 13: “neque eam voraginem conjectu terrae, cum pro se quisque gereret, expleri potuisse,id. 7, 6, 2; cf. id. 37, 5, 1. —Absol.: “si non habebis unde irriges, gerito inditoque leniter,Cato, R. R. 151, 4; Liv. 7, 6, 2 Drak.—Prov.: “non pluris refert, quam si imbrem in cribrum geras,Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 100.—
2. With the accessory idea of production, to bear, bring forth, produce: “quae (terra) quod gerit fruges, Ceres (appellata est),Varr. L. L. 5, § 64 Müll.; cf. Tib. 2, 4, 56: “violam nullo terra serente gerit,Ov. Tr. 3, 12, 6: “arbores (Oete),id. M. 9, 230: “malos (platani),Verg. G. 2, 70: frondes (silva), Ov. M. 11, 615: “terra viros urbesque gerit silvasque ferasque Fluminaque et Nymphas et cetera numina ruris,Ov. M. 2, 16.
II. Trop.
A. In gen., to bear, have, entertain, cherish: vos etenim juvenes animum geritis muliebrem, illa virago viri, Poët. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf.: “fortem animum gerere,Sall. J. 107, 1: “parem animum,id. ib. 54, 1 Kritz.: “animum invictum advorsum divitias,id. ib. 43, 5: “animum super fortunam,id. ib. 64, 2: “mixtum gaudio ac metu animum,Liv. 32, 11, 5; cf. also Verg. A. 9, 311; and v. infra B. 3.: aeque inimicitiam atque amicitiam in frontem promptam gero, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 8, 6 (Trag. v. 8 Vahl.): “personam,to support a character, play a part, Cic. Off. 1, 32, 115; cf.: “est igitur proprium munus magistratus, intelligere, se gerere personam civitatis debereque ejus dignitatem et decus sustinere,id. ib. 1, 34, 132; Aug. Doctr. Christ. 4, 29 init.; “id. Civ. Dei, 1, 21 al.: mores, quos ante gerebant, Nunc quoque habent,Ov. M. 7, 655: “et nos aliquod nomenque decusque Gessimus,Verg. A. 2, 89: “seu tu querelas sive geris jocos Seu rixam et insanos amores Seu facilem, pia testa (i. e. amphora), somnum,Hor. C. 3, 21, 2: “in dextris vestris jam libertatem, opem ... geritis,Curt. 4, 14 fin.: “plumbeas iras,Plaut. Poen. 3, 6, 18: “iras,Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 30: M. Catonem illum Sapientem cum multis graves inimicitias gessisse accepimus propter Hispanorum injurias, Cic. Div. ap. Caecil. 20, 66: “veteres inimicitias cum Caesare,Caes. B. C. 1, 3, 4: “muliebres inimicitias cum aliqua,Cic. Cael. 14, 32: “inimicitias hominum more,id. Deiot. 11, 30: simultatem cum aliquo pro re publica, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 13, A, 3; cf. Suet. Vesp. 6; and Verg. A. 12, 48: “de amicitia gerenda praeclarissime scripti libri,Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 5: “amicitiam,Nep. Dat. 10 fin.: “praecipuum in Romanos gerebant odium,Liv. 28, 22, 2: “cum fortuna mutabilem gerentes fidem,id. 8, 24, 6: “utrique imperii cupiditatem insatiabilem gerebant,Just. 17, 1 fin. —Absol.: “ad ea rex, aliter atque animo gerebat, placide respondit,Sall. J. 72, 1.—
B. In partic.
1. Gerere se aliquo modo, to bear, deport, behave, or conduct one's self, to act in any manner: “in maximis rebus quonam modo gererem me adversus Caesarem, usus tuo consilio sum,Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 5; cf. id. Off. 1, 28, 98: “ut, quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,id. ib. 1, 26, 90; so, “se liberius (servi),id. Rep. 1, 43: “se inconsultius,Liv. 41, 10, 5: “se valde honeste,Cic. Att. 6, 1, 13: “se perdite,id. ib. 9, 2, A, 2: “se turpissime (illa pars animi),id. Tusc. 2, 21, 48: “se turpiter in legatione,Plin. Ep. 2, 12, 4: “sic in provincia nos gerimus, quod ad abstinentiam attinet, ut, etc.,Cic. Att. 5, 17, 2: “sic me in hoc magistratu geram, ut, etc.,id. Agr. 1, 8, 26; cf.: “nunc ita nos gerimus, ut, etc.,id. ib. 2, 22, 3: “uti sese victus gereret, exploratum misit,Sall. J. 54, 2: “se medium gerere,to remain neutral, Liv. 2, 27, 3.—
b. In a like sense also post-class.: gerere aliquem, to behave or conduct one's self as any one (like agere aliquem): “nec heredem regni sed regem gerebat,Just. 32, 3, 1; Plin. Pan. 44, 2: “tu civem patremque geras,Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 293: “aedilem,App. M. 1, p. 113: “captivum,Sen. Troad. 714.—
c. Gerere se et aliquem, to treat one's self and another in any manner: “interim Romae gaudium ingens ortum cognitis Metelli rebus, ut seque et exercitum more majorum gereret,Sall. J. 55, 1: “meque vosque in omnibus rebus juxta geram,id. ib. 85, 47.—
d. Pro aliquo se gerere, to assume to be: “querentes, quosdam non sui generis pro colonis se gerere,Liv. 32, 2, 6: “eum, qui sit census, ita se jam tum gessisse pro cive,Cic. Arch. 5, 11 dub.—
2. Gerere prae se aliquid (for the usual prae se ferre), to show, exhibit, manifest: “affectionis ratio perspicuam solet prae se gerere conjecturam, ut amor, iracundia, molestia, etc.,Cic. Inv. 2, 9, 30; cf.: “prae se quandam gerere utilitatem,id. ib. 2, 52, 157: animum altum et erectum prae se gerebat, Auct. B. Afr. 10 fin.; Aug. de Lib. Arbit. 3, 21, 61 al.; “so gerere alone: ita tum mos erat, in adversis voltum secundae fortunae gerere, moderari animo in secundis,to assume, Liv. 42, 63, 11.—
3. With the accessory idea of activity or exertion, to sustain the charge of any undertaking or business, to administer, manage, regulate, rule, govern, conduct, carry on, wage, transact, accomplish, perform (cf.: facio, ago).—In pass. also in gen., to happen, take place, be done (hence, res gesta, a deed, and res gestae, events, occurrences, acts, exploits; v. the foll.): tertium gradum agendi esse dicunt, ubi quid faciant; “in eo propter similitudinem agendi et faciundi et gerundi quidam error his, qui putant esse unum. Potest enim aliquid facere et non agere, ut poëta facit fabulam et non agit: contra actor agit et non facit. ... Contra imperator quod dicitur res gerere, in eo neque facit neque agit, sed gerit, id est sustinet, translatum ab his qui onera gerunt, quod hi sustinent,Varr. L. L. 6, § 77 Müll.: “omnia nostra, quoad eris Romae, ita gerito, regito, gubernato, ut nihil a me exspectes,Cic. Att. 16, 2, 2: “gerere et administrare rem publicam,id. Fin. 3, 20, 68; cf. id. Rep. 2, 1 and 12: “rem publicam,id. ib. 1, 7; 1, 8; id. Fam. 2, 7, 3 et saep.: “magistratum,id. Sest. 37, 79; cf. “potestatem,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 55, § 138: “consulatum,id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; id. Sest. 16, 37: “duumviratum,id. ib. 8, 19: “tutelam alicujus,Dig. 23, 2, 68; 27, 1, 22 al.: multi suam rem bene gessere et publicam patria procul, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1 (Trag. v. 295 Vahl.); so, “rem, of private affairs,Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 34; Cic. de Sen. 7, 22 al.: “aliquid per aes et libram gerere,to transact by coin and balance, Gai. Inst. 3, 173; cf. Weissenb. ad Liv. 6, 14.—Of war: etsi res bene gesta est, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 42, 168 (Ann. v. 512 Vahl.): vi geritur res, id. ap. Gell. 20, 10 (Ann. v. 272 ib.); cf.: “gladiis geri res coepta est,Liv. 28, 2, 6: “ubi res ferro geratur,id. 10, 39, 12: qui rem cum Achivis gesserunt statim, Enn. ap. Non. 393, 14 (Trag. v. 39 Vahl.); cf. Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 84: “Alexander ... passurus gestis aequanda pericula rebus,exploits, Juv. 14, 314: “miranda quidem, sed nuper gesta referemus,id. 15, 28.—Of public affairs, affairs of government: “magnae res temporibus illis a fortissimis viris summo imperio praeditis, dictatoribus atque consulibus, belli domique gerebantur,Cic. Rep. 2, 32 fin.; 2, 24: “a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit,id. de Sen. 6, 15; cf. § 17: quid quod homines infima fortuna, nulla spe rerum gerendarum (public business), opifices denique, delectantur historia? maximeque eos videre possumus res gestas (public events or occurrences) audire et legere velle, qui a spe gerendi absunt, confecti senectute, id. Fin. 5, 19, 52: “sin per se populus interfecit aut ejecit tyrannum, est moderatior, quoad sentit et sapit et sua re gesta laetatur,their deed, id. Rep. 1, 42: “ut pleraque senatus auctoritate gererentur,id. ib. 2, 32; cf. id. ib. 1, 27: “haec dum Romae geruntur,id. Quint. 6, 28: “ut iis, qui audiunt, tum geri illa fierique videantur,id. de Or. 2, 59, 241: “susceptum negotium,id. Fam. 13, 5, 1; cf.: “si ipse negotium meum gererem, nihil gererem, nisi consilio tuo,id. Att. 13, 3, 1: “negotium bene, male, etc.,id. Rosc. Com. 11, 32; id. Cat. 2, 10, 21; Caes. B. G. 3, 18, 5 et saep.; cf.: “quid negotii geritur?Cic. Quint. 13, 42: annos multos bellum gerentes summum summā industriā, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 Vahl.); cf.: “bello illo maximo, quod Athenienses et Lacedaemonii summa inter se contentione gesserunt,Cic. Rep. 1, 16; so, “bella,id. ib. 5, 2: pacem an bellum gerens, v. Andrews and Stoddard's Gram. § 323, 1 (2); Sall. J. 46 fin.: “bella multa felicissime,Cic. Rep. 2, 9: “bellum cum aliquo,id. Sest. 2, 4; id. Div. 1, 46, 103; Caes. B. G. 1, 1, 4 et saep.: “bello gesto,Liv. 5, 43, 1: mea mater de ea re gessit morem morigerae mihi, performed my will, i. e. complied with my wishes, gratified, humored me, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 87; cf.: “geram tibi morem et ea quae vis, ut potero, explicabo,Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 17: morem alicui (in aliqua re), Enn. ap. Non. 342, 24 (Trag. v. 241 Vahl.): “sine me in hac re gerere mihi morem,Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 74; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 44; id. Men. 5, 2, 37; id. Mil. 2, 1, 58; Cic. Rep. 3, 5; id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; Ov. Am. 2, 2, 13 et saep.; also without dat., Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 36; Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 77.—Pass.: “ut utrique a me mos gestus esse videatur,Cic. Att. 2, 16, 3; Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 69; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 108; id. Ad. 2, 2, 6; Nep. Them. 7, 3 al.—With a play upon this meaning and that in II. A.: magna, inquit, bella gessi: “magnis imperiis et provinciis praefui. Gere igitur animum laude dignum,Cic. Par. 5, 2, 37.—Absol.: “cum superiores alii fuissent in disputationibus perpoliti, quorum res gestae nullae invenirentur, alii in gerendo probabiles, in disserendo rudes,Cic. Rep. 1, 8; cf. “the passage,id. Fin. 5, 19, 52 supra: “Armeniam deinde ingressus prima parte introitus prospere gessit,Vell. 2, 102, 2 (where others unnecessarily insert rem), Liv. 25, 22, 1; cf. “also: sive caesi ab Romanis forent Bastarnae ... sive prospere gessissent,id. 40, 58 fin.: “cum Persis et Philippus qui cogitavit, et Alexander, qui gessit, hanc bellandi causam inferebat, etc.,Cic. Rep. 3, 9.—
4. Of time, to pass, spend (mostly post-Aug.; not in Cic.): ut (Tullia) cum aliquo adolescente primario conjuncta aetatem gereret, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 3; cf.: “pubertatis ac primae adolescentiae tempus,Suet. Dom. 1: “vitam,Petr. 63; Val. Fl. 6, 695: “annum gerens aetatis sexagesimum et nonum,Suet. Vesp. 24.—Hence, gĕrens , entis, P. a. (acc. to II. B. 3.), managing, conducting, etc.; with gen.: “rei male gerentes,Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 43: “sui negotii bene gerens,Cic. Quint. 19, 62.
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