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Lătĭum , ii, n. 2. lătus; Sanscr. root prath-, to spread or widen; cf. Lat. later, etc.; prop., the plains or flat-land; “by the ancients referred to latēre, because here Saturnus lay concealed from his son,Ov. F. 1, 238; Verg. A. 8, 322; Arn. 4, 143; Lact. 1, 13; “or to Latinus,the name of the mythical king, Varr. L. L. 5, § 32 Müll.,
I.a country of Italy, in which Rome was situated, now Campagna di Roma, and a part of the Terra di Lavoro, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 54; Enn. ap. Acro. ad Hor. S. 1, 2, 37 (Ann. v. 455); Cic. Rep. 2, 24, 44; Liv. 6, 21; 8, 13; Hor. C. 1, 12, 53; 1, 35, 10; id. C. S. 66; Mel. 3, 4, 2; consisting of two parts: “Latium vetus,Tac. A. 4, 5; “or antiquum,Verg. A. 7, 38; Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 56; which was the original territory governed by Rome before the subjugation of the Æqui and Volsci, and: “Latium novum, or adjectum,originally the territory of the Æqui, Volsci, Hernici, and Aurunci, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 59.—
B. Jus Latii, the political rights and privileges which belonged originally to the Latins, but were afterwards granted by the Romans to other people; this jus comprehended less than civitas Romana, but more than peregrinitas (cf. latinitas and Latini): “eodem anno Caesar nationes Alpium maritimarum in jus Latii transtulit,Tac. A. 15, 32. —Also called Latium alone: aut majus est Latium aut minus; majus est Latium, cum et hi, qui decuriones leguntur, et ei qui honorem aliquem aut magistratum gerunt, civitatem Romanam consecuntur; “minus Latium est, cum hi tantum, qui vel magistratum vel honorem gerunt, ad civitatem Romanam perveniunt,Gai. Inst. 1, 96; cf.: “Latium externis dilargiri,Tac. H. 3, 55: “Latio dato,Plin. 5, 2, 1, § 20: “Latio donata oppida,id. 3, 1, 3, § 7.—
II. Hence,
A. Lătĭ-us , a, um, adj., of or belonging to Latium, Latian, Latin (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): “agri,the Latin territory, Ov. F. 2, 553; 3, 606; 5, 91: “gens,id. ib. 4, 42; id. M. 14, 832: “lingua,id. P. 2, 3, 75: palmes, vines growing in Latium, id. F. 4, 894: “boves,Col. 6, 1, 2. —Poet., for Roman: “turba,the Roman people, Ov. F. 1, 639: “parentes,id. ib. 3, 243; cf. “matres,id. ib. 4, 133: “annus,the Roman year, id. ib. 1, 1: “vulnera,of Roman soldiers, id. A. A. 1, 414.—
B. Lătīnus , a, um, adj., of or belonging to Latium, Latin.
1. Adj.: populi, the Latins, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 28 Müll. (Ann. v. 24 Vahl.); cf. “genus,the Latins, Romans, Verg. A. 1, 6: “lingua,the Latin language, Varr. L. L. 5, § 1 Müll.; cf. “opp. Graeca,Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10: “poëtae, opp. Graeci,id. Ac. 1, 3, 10: via, beginning at the Porta Latina, near the Porta Capena, id. Clu. 59, 163; Liv. 2, 39; 10, 36 al.: “dies,the days of the Roman calendar, the Roman year, Ov. F. 3, 177: feriae, the festival of the allied Latins, which was celebrated especially by offerings to Juppiter Latiaris on Mons Albanus, Varr. L. L. 6, § 25 Müll.; Cic. N. D. 1, 6, 15; Liv. 21, 63; 22, 1; more freq. absol.; v. in the foll. 2.: coloniae, which possessed the jus Latii, Cic. Caecin. 33 fin.; Suet. Caes. 8: nomen, Latin citizenship, also called jus Latii and Latinitas, Cic. Rep. 1, 19, 31; 3, 29, 41; Sall. J. 39, 2 (v. socius): casus, i. e. the ablative, Varr. ap. Diom. p. 277 P.: “tragici veteres,Quint. 1, 8, 8: “esse illud Latinum (verbum),Suet. Gram. 22.—Comp.: nihil Latinius legi, M. Aur. ap. Front. Ep. 2, 6 Mai.; cf.: “nihil Latinius tuis voluminibus,Hier. Ep. 58, 9.—Sup.: “homo Latinissimus,Hier. Ep. 50, 2.—Adv.: Lătīnē , in Latin: “Graece haec vocatur emporos: eadem Latine mercator,Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 5; id. Cas. prol. 34: “Cumanis petentibus, ut publice Latine loquerentur, et praeconibus Latine vendendi jus esset,in the Latin tongue, Liv. 40, 42 fin.: “scire,to understand Latin, Cic. Caecin. 19, 55: “num Latine scit?id. Phil. 5, 5, 13: “non enim tam praeclarum est scire Latine, quam turpe nescire,id. Brut. 37, 140: “nescire,Juv. 6, 188: reddere, to translate into Latin, Cic. de Or, 1, 34, 153; cf. “docere,Plin. Ep. 7, 4, 9.—In partic.: Latine loqui, to speak with propriety or elegance: “Latine et diligenter loqui,Cic. Brut. 45, 166; cf.: “ut pure et emendate loquentes, quod est Latine,id. Opt. Gen. Or. 2, 4: “pure et Latine loqui,id. de Or. 1, 32, 144.—Sometimes, also, like our to talk plain English, for, to speak out, to speak plainly or openly (syn. Romano more loqui): “(gladiator), ut appellant ii, qui plane et Latine loquuntur,Cic. Phil. 7, 6, 17: “Latine me scitote, non accusatorie loqui,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 2: “poscere,Juv. 11, 148: “formare,to compose in Latin, Suet. Aug. 89: componere, id. Gram. init.—Comp.: Latinius, in better Latin (late Lat.), Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 3, 6; Hier. in Isa. 8, 10.—
2. Subst.
a. Lătīni , ōrum, m.
(α). The inhabitants of Latium, Latins, Liv. 1, 2 sq.; 1, 32 sq.; 2, 19 sq.; Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38; 3, 31, 112; Verg. A. 7, 367; Juv. 6, 44. —
(β). Those who possessed the Latin rights of citizenship (jus Latii, Latinitas); “freq. in the connection, socii et Latini,Cic. Balb. 8, 21; id. Sest. 13, 30; id. Lael. 3, 12 (v. socius).—
(γ). Latini Juniani, freedmen whose liberty was secured by the operation of the lex Junia Norbana (772 A. U. C.), Gai. Inst. 3, § 56.—
b. Lătīnae , ārum, f. (sc. feriae), the festival of the allied Latins, the Latin holidays, Liv. 5, 17; 19; Cic. Att. 1, 3; id. Q. Fr. 2, 4, 2 fin.; id. poët. Div. 1, 11, 18.—
c. Lătīnum , i, n., Latin, the Latin language: “licet in Latinum illa convertere,Cic. Tusc. 3, 14, 29: “in Latinum vertore,Quint. 1, 5, 2.—
C. Lătī-nĭensis , e, adj., Latin: “populi,Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 69: ager, Auct. Harusp. Resp. 10, 20.— In plur absol.: Lătīnĭenses , ĭum, m., the Latins, Auct. Harusp. Resp. 28, 62.—
D. Lătĭālis , and euphon. collat. form -tĭāris , e (also Lătĭar , v. infra), adj., of or belonging to Latium, Latin.
1. Form Latialis: “populus,the Latins, Romans, Ov. M. 15, 481: “sermo,Plin. 3, 1, 3, § 7: “Juppiter,Luc. 1, 198; “hence, also, caput,a statue of Jupiter, id. 1, 535.—Lătĭālĭter , adv., in the Latin manner (post - class.): “peplo circa umeros involuto Latialiter tegebatur,Mart. Cap. 5 init.: “nihil effari,id. 6, § 587: “te Latialiter sonantem,Sid. Carm. 23, 235 (al. Latiariter).—
2. Form Latiaris: Latiaris sancte Juppiter (Juppiter Latiaris was the guardian deity of the Latin confederacy, to whom the feriae Latinae were consecrated), Cic. Mil. 31, 85: “Juppiter,Plin. 34, 7, 18, § 43 Sillig. N. cr.: “collis,Varr. L. L. 5, § 52 Müll.: “doctrina Latiaris,Macr. S. 1, 2.—Adv.: Lătĭārĭter , v. in the preced. 1.—
b. Hence, subst.: Lătĭar , āris, n., the festival of Jupiter Latiaris: “confectum erat Latiar,Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 4, 2; cf. Macr. S. 1, 16, 16.
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