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lingua (ante-class. form dingua, like dagrima for lacrima, Mar. Victorin. p. 2457 and 2470 P.; cf. the letter D), ae, f. Sanscr. jihvā; original Lat. form. dingua; A. -S. tunga; Germ. Zunge; Engl. tongue. Not from the root lih, lich, v. lingo,
I.the tongue.
I. Lit.: “fac proserpentem bestiam me duplicem ut habeam linguam (of a kiss in which the tongues touched each other),Plaut. As. 3, 3, 105: “lingua haeret metu,Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 7: “in ore sita lingua est, finita dentibus,Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 149: “linguā haesitantes,id. de Or. 1, 25, 115: “linguā properanti legere,Ov. P. 3, 5, 9: “linguā titubante loqui,id. Tr. 3, 1, 21: “quo facilius verba ore libero exprimeret, calculos lingua volvens dicere domi solebat (Demosthenes),Quint. 11, 3, 54: linguam exserere, to thrust out the tongue, in token of derision or contempt, Liv. 7, 10: so, “lingua ejecta,Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 266: “lingua minor,the epiglottis, Plin. 11, 37, 66, § 175.—Comically, as mock term of endearment: “hujus voluptas, te opsecro, hujus mel, hujus cor, hujus labellum, hujus lingua,Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 178; cf. v. 175.—In mal. part.: homo malae linguae, a fellow with a bad tongue, i. q. fellator, Mart. 3, 80, 2; Min. Fel. Oct. 28.—
II. Transf.
A. Since the tongue is an organ of speech, a tongue, utterance, speech, language: “largus opum, lingua melior,Verg. A. 11, 338: “facilem benevolumque lingua tua jam tibi me reddidit,Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 35: “non tu tibi istam praetruncari linguam largiloquam jubes?Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 47: “Latium beare divite linguā,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 120: “lingua quasi flabello seditionis contionem ventilare,Cic. Fl. 23, 54: “linguam continere,id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 13: “tenere,Ov. F. 2, 602: “moderari,Sall. J. 84: “linguae solutio,Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 114: “linguam solvere ad jurgia,Ov. M. 3, 261: “quidam operarii linguā celeri et exercitatā,Cic. de Or. 1, 18, 83: “ut vitemus linguas hominum,id. Fam. 9, 2, 2: “Aetolorum linguas retundere,to check their tongues, bring them to silence, Liv. 33, 3; cf.: “claudente noxarum conscientiā linguam,Amm. 16, 12, 61: “si mihi lingua foret,Ov. H. 21, 205: “ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro,Verg. E. 7, 28: favete linguis, i. e. give attention, "be silent that you may hear," Hor. C. 3, 1, 2; Ov. F. 1, 71: “linguis animisque faventes,Juv. 12, 83: “nam lingua mali pars pessima servi,id. 9, 121: “mercedem imponere linguae,” i. e. to speak for pay, id. 7, 149: “usum linguae reciperare,Amm. 17, 12, 10: “linguā debili esse,to stammer, Gell. 1, 12, 2.—Comically: os habeat, linguam, perfidiam, tongue, i. e. readiness in speech, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 33. —
2. The tongue or language of a people: “lingua Latina, Graeca,Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10: “Graeca et Latina lingua,Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 6: “(Massilia) tam procul a Graecorum regionibus, disciplinis linguāque divisa,Cic. Fl. 26, 63: “quod quidem Latina lingua sic observat, ut, etc.,id. Or. 44, 150: “Gallicae linguae scientiam habere,Caes. B. G. 1, 47: “qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli, appellantur,id. ib. 1, 1: “dissimili linguā,Sall. C. 6, 2: “linguā utrāque,” i. e. Greek and Latin, Hor. S. 1, 10, 23; so, auctores utriusque linguae, Quint. prooem. 1; “1, 1, 14: Mithridates, cui duas et viginti linguas notas fuisse,id. 11, 2, 50: “haud rudis Graecae linguae,Curt. 5, 11, 4; 5, 4, 4; Nep. Milt. 3, 2: “Syrus in Tiberim Orontes et linguam et mores vexit,Juv. 3, 63.—
b. Dialect, idiom, mode of speech (post-Aug.): illis non verborum modo, sed. linguarum etiam se inter differentium copia est. Quint. 12, 10, 34: “Crassus quinque Graeci sermonis differentias sic tenuit, ut, qua quisque apud eum linguā postulasset, eadem jus sibi redditum ferret,id. 11, 2, 50: “utar enim historicā linguā,Sen. Q. N. 1, 13, 3: “si philosophorum linguā uti voluissem,id. ib. 2, 2, 4.—
3. Poet. of animals. the voice, note, song, bark, etc.: “linguae volucrum,Verg. A. 3, 361; 10, 177: “linguam praecludere (canis),Phaedr. 1, 22, 5.—
4. An utterance, expression: “lingua secretior,a dark saying, Quint. 1, 1, 35.—
B. Of tongue-shaped things.
1. A plant, also called lingulaca, Plin. 24, 19, 108, § 170.—
2. Lingua bubula, a plant, oxtongue, bugloss, Cato, R. R. 40; Plin. 17, 14, 24, § 112.—
3. Lingua canina, Cels. 5, 27, 18 init.; “and lingua canis,App. Herb. 96, the plant hound's-tongue, also called cynoglossos; q. v.—
4. A tongue of land: id promontorium, Cujus lingua in altum proicit, Pac. ap. Gell. 4, 17 fin.: “lingua in altum mille passuum excurrens,Liv. 37, 31, 9; Weissenb. ad Liv. 25, 15, 12: “eminet in altum lingua, in qua urbs sita est,Liv. 44, 11: “tenuem producit in aequora linguam,Luc. 2, 614; cf.: lingua dicitur promontorii genus non excellentis sed molliter in planum devexi, Paul. ex Fest. p. 121 Müll.—
5. A spoonful, as a measure, Plin. 26, 11, 73, § 119 (al. lingulis).—
6. The tongue or reed of a flute, Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84.—
7. The short arm of a lever: “vectis lingua sub onus subdita,Vitr. 10, 8 (cf. ligula, VII.).
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