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măgistrātus , ūs (contr. form:
I.magistras primus,Inscr. Orell. 3798), m. magister, the office or rank of a magister, a magisterial office, civil office, magistracy.
I. Lit.: “honores, magistratus, imperia, potestates,Cic. Lael. 17, 63: “magistratūs mandare,id. Mur 35, 74: “dare,id. Agr. 2, 10, 26: “alicui committere,id. Planc. 25, 61: “magistratum habere,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 61, § 137: “obtinere,to hold, administer, Caes. B. G. 7, 33: “ingredi,to enter upon, Sall. J. 47: “magistratu abire,to resign, Cic. Leg. 3, 20, 47: “se abdicare,Dig. 1, 2, 2: “deponere,Caes. B. G. 7, 33: “in magistratu manere,to remain in office, Liv. 5, 11: “esse,id. 5, 28: “aliquid gerere in magistratu,Cic. Leg. 3, 20, 47: “hoc mihi deposco, quod agam in magistratu,Cic. Verr. 1, 12, 36: lex est generale jussum populi aut plebis, rogante magistratu, Att. Cap. ap. Gell. 10, 20, 2.—There were two kinds of civil offices in Rome, magistratus extraordinarii and ordinarii. To the former belonged the dictators, the magistri equitum, the duumviri perduellionis, the quaestores rerum capitalium, the triumviri mensarii, etc. The latter were divided into the majores: the consulate, praetorship, and censorship; and the minores, to which belonged the aediles, the quaestors, the tribuni plebis, the triumviri, etc. Besides these, there were magistratus patricii, which, at first, were filled by patricians; and, on the other hand, magistratus plebeii, which were filled from the plebs; curules, who had the privilege of using the sella curulis, namely, the consuls, censors, praetors, and aediles curules. On the distinction between magistratus majores and minores, v. esp. Gell. 13, 15, 4; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 157.—
B. Esp.
1. When magistratus and imperia are joined together, the former denotes magisterial offices in Rome, and the latter the authority of officers in the provinces: “magistratus et imperia minime mihi cupiunda videntur,Sall. J. 3; cf.: “juris dictionem de fidei commissis, quot annis et tantum in urbe delegari magistratibus solitam, in perpetuum atque etiam per provincias potestatibus demandavit,Suet. Claud. 23: magistratus, as a general rule, is used of civil offices alone, and only by way of exception of military commands; “the latter were called imperia: abstinentiam neque in imperiis, neque in magistratibus praestitit,Suet. Caes. 54.—
II. Transf., a magistrate, public functionary: quae vox (magistratus) duabus significationibus notatur. Nam aut personam ipsam demonstrat, ut cum dicimus: magistratus jussit; aut honorem, ut cum dicimus: Tito magistratus datus est, Paul. ex Fest. p. 126 Müll.: “est proprium munus magistratūs, intelligere, se gerere personam civitatis,Cic. Off. 1, 34, 124; Sall. J. 19: “seditiosi,id. ib. 73: “creare magistratus,Liv. 5, 17: his enim magistratibus legati Romam venerunt, in their consulate, Nep. Hann. 7: “inter filium magistratum et patrem privatum,Gell. 2, 2. —
B. Esp., sing. collect., the body of magistrates, the municipal administration (cf. Gr. ἀρχή = ἄρχοντες; “not in Cic.): ad magistratum senatumque Lacedaemoniorum,Nep. Them. 7. 4; id. Lys. 4, 3; id. Epam. 4, 3.
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