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offĭcĭum , ii, n. for opificium, opus and facio, qs. that which one does for another,
I.a service, whether of free will or of (external or moral) necessity (class.; cf.: studium, beneficium, meritum, munus).
I. A voluntary service, a kindness, favor, courtesy, rendered to one whose claim to it is recognized; “while beneficium is a service rendered where there is no claim: officium esse filii, uxoris, earum personarum, quas necessitudo suscitat et ferre opem jubet,Sen. Ben. 3, 18, 1.
A. In gen.: “altera sententia est, quae definit amicitiam paribus officiis ac voluntatibus,Cic. Lael. 16, 58: “odiosum sane genus hominum officia exprobrantium,id. ib. 20, 71: “nihil est vicissitudine studiorum officiorumque jucundius,id. ib. 14, 49: filicem cum officio vicini decidere, so as to do him a service, Col. 2, 14, 6: “summo officio praeditus homo,exceedingly obliging, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 51, § 135. —
B. In partic.
2. In mal. part., compliance, favor, Prop. 3, 15, 24; Ov. Am. 1, 10, 46; 3, 7, 24; cf. “virile,Theod. Prisc. 2, 11: “puerile,Plaut. Cist. 4, 1, 5; Petr. 140.—
II. In gen., an obligatory service, an obligation, duty, function, part, office (so most freq. in prose and poetry of all periods): “nulla vitae pars neque publicis neque privatis neque forensibus neque domesticis in rebus, neque si tecum agas quid, neque, si cum altero contrahas, vacare oflicio potest: in eoque et colendo sita vitae est honestas omnis et in neglegendo turpitudo, etc.,Cic. Off. 1, 2, 4 sq.: perfectum officium rectum opinor vocemus, quod Graeci κατόρθωμα: hoc autem commune καθῆκον vocant, id. ib. 1, 3, 8; “an id doles, quia illi suum officium non colunt, quom tu tuum facis?Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 34; id. ib. 1, 1, 39; id. Pers. 4, 4, 66: “meminisse officium suum,to remember one's duty, id. Trin. 3, 2, 71.—Also, subject., a sense of duty: “si quis aegre ferat nihil in se esse virtutis, nihil officii, etc.,Cic. Tusc. 4, 28, 61: “quicquid in eum judicii officiique contuleris,id. Fam. 10, 1 fin.: “intellegere, utrum apud eos pudor atque officium an timor valeret,Caes. B. G. 1, 40, 14: “suum facere,to do one's duty, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 44: “omnibus officiis amicitiae servatis,observe all the obligations of friendship, Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3: “exsequi,id. Att. 3, 15, 4: “fungi officio,id. Fam. 3, 8, 3: “satisfacere officio,to perform, id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47: “officium suum deserere,to disregard one's duty, not perform it, id. Off. 1, 9, 28: “discedere ab officio,id. ib. 1, 10, 32: “deesse officio suo,id. Fam. 7, 3, 1: “officii duxit,considered it his duty, Suet. Tib. 11.—Of animals: “canes funguntur officiis luporum,act the part of, Auct. Her. 4, 34, 46.—Of things: “neque pes neque mens satis suum officium facit,Ter. Eun. 4, 5, 3: officium corporis, the function or property of a body, Lucr. 1, 336 and 362.—
B. In partic.
1. Lit., an official duty, a service, employment, business (class.): “toti officio maritimo M. Bibulus praepositus cuncta administrabat,naval service, Caes. B. C. 3, 5 fin.; 3, 8: “celeriter equitatus ad cotidianum itineris officium revertitur,id. ib. 1, 80: “confecto legationis officio,id. ib. 3, 103: “destringor officio,Plin. Ep. 7, 15, 1: “officium (scribae),Nep. Eum. 1, 5.—
2. Transf., an office, appointment (post-Aug.).
a. Laboriosissimum et maximum, office, Plin. Pan. 91: “nova officia excogitavit,Suet. Aug. 37; cf.: “novum officium instituit a voluptatibus,id. Tib. 42: “obligationes, quae non propriis viribus consistunt, neque officio judicis, neque praetoris imperio neque legis potestate confirmantur,Dig. 44, 7, 27: “qui ex officio pro aliis interveniunt,by virtue of their office, ib. 21, 1, 31, § 14: “ministerii,Vulg. Exod. 28, 35: “sacerdotum,id. Num. 7, 8.—
b. Transf., in concr.
(α). The officials or attendants on a magistrate = officialium corpus (post-class.): “sub praetextu adventus officiorum vel militum,Dig. 1, 18, 6; 21, 2, 74: “deponere aliquid apud officium,ib. 2, 4. 17: officia palatina, officers at the imperial court, Treb. Poll. Gall. 17, 8.—
(β). An office or court of a magistrate: “ipse me Regulus convenit in praetoris officio,Plin. Ep. 1, 5, 11.
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