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prĕmo , essi, essum, 3, v. a. etym. dub.; cf. prelum,
I.to press (class.).
I. Lit.: “pede pedem alicui premere,Plaut. As. 4, 1, 30: “et trepidae matres pressere ad pectora natos,Verg. A. 7, 518: “veluti qui sentibus anguem Pressit humi nitens,id. ib. 2, 379: “novercae Monstra manu premens,id. ib. 8, 288: “pressit et inductis membra paterna rotis,” i. e. drove her chariot over her father's body, Ov. Ib. 366: “trabes Hymettiae Premunt columnas,press, rest heavily upon them, Hor. C. 2, 18, 3: “premere terga genu alicujus,Ov. Am. 3, 2, 24: “ubera plena,” i. e. to milk, id. F. 4, 769: “vestigia alicujus,to tread in, to follow one's footsteps, Tac. A. 2, 14: “nudis pressit qui calcibus anguem,Juv. 1, 43: “dente frena,to bite, to champ, Ov. M. 10, 704: “ore aliquid,to chew, eat, id. ib. 5, 538; cf.: “aliquid morsu,Lucr. 3, 663: “presso molari,with compressed teeth, Juv. 5, 160: “pressum lac,” i. e. cheese, Verg. E. 1, 82.—In mal. part.: “Hister Peucen premerat Antro,forced, Val. Fl. 8, 256: “uxorem,Suet. Calig. 25.—Of animals: “feminas premunt galli,Mart. 3, 57, 17.—
B. Transf.
1. Poet., to bear down upon, to touch: “premere litora,Ov. M. 14, 416: “litus,to keep close to the shore, Hor. C. 2, 10, 3: “aëra,” i. e. to fly, Luc. 7, 835.—
2. Poet., to hold fast, hold, firmly grasp: “premere frena manu,Ov. M. 8, 37: “ferrum,to grasp, Sil. 5, 670: “capulum,id. 2, 615.—
3. Poet., to press a place with one's body, i. e. to sit, stand, lie, fall, or seat one's self on any thing: “toros,Ov. H. 12, 30: “sedilia,id. M. 5, 317: “hoc quod premis habeto,id. ib. 5, 135: “et pictam positā pharetram cervice premebat,id. ib. 2, 421: “humum,to lie on the ground, id. Am. 3, 5, 16; cf. id. F. 4, 844: “frondes tuo premis ore caducas,id. M. 9, 650; Sen. Hippol. 510.—
4. To cover, to conceal by covering (mostly poet.): “aliquid terrā,to conceal, bury in the earth, Hor. Epod. 1, 33: “nonumque prematur in annum,kept back, suppressed, id. A. P. 388: “omne lucrum tenebris alta premebat humus,Ov. Am. 3, 8, 36: “ossa male pressa,” i. e. buried, id. Tr. 5, 3, 39; Plin. 2, 79, 81, § 191; hence, to crown, to cover or adorn with any thing: “ut premerer sacrā lauro,Hor. C. 3, 4, 18: “molli Fronde crinem,Verg. A. 4, 147: “canitiem galeā,id. ib. 9, 612: “mitrā capillos,Ov. F. 4, 517; cf. Verg. A. 5, 556.—
5. To make, form, or shape any thing by pressing (poet.): “quod surgente die mulsere horisque diurnis, Nocte premunt,they make into cheese, Verg. G. 3, 400: “os fingit premendo,id. A. 6, 80: “caseos,id. E. 1, 35: “mollem terram,Vulg. Sap. 15, 7; Calp. Ecl. 5, 34.—
7. To press down, burden, load, freight: “nescia quem premeret,on whose back she sat, Ov. M. 2, 869: “tergum equi,id. ib. 8, 34; “14, 343: et natat exuviis Graecia pressa suis,Prop. 4, 1, 114 (5, 1, 116): “pressae carinae,Verg. G. 1, 303: “pressus membra mero,Prop. 2, 12 (3, 7), 42: “magno et gravi onere armorum pressi,Caes. B. G. 4, 24: “auro phaleras,to adorn, Stat. Th. 8, 567.—
8. To press into, force in, press upon: “(caprum) dentes in vite prementem,Ov. F. 1, 355: “presso sub vomere,Verg. G. 2, 356; cf.: “presso aratro,Tib. 4, 1, 161: “alte ensem in corpore,Stat. Th. 11, 542: “et nitidas presso pollice finge comas,Prop. 3, 8 (4, 9), 14: “et cubito remanete presso,leaning upon, Hor. C. 1, 27, 8. —
b. To make with any thing (poet.): “aeternā notā,Ov. F. 6, 610: “littera articulo pressa tremente,id. H. 10, 140: “multā via pressa rotā,id. ib. 18, 134.—
b. In partic.
(α). To set, plant: “virgulta per agros,Verg. G. 2, 346; 26.—
(β). To make or form by pressing down, to make any thing deep, to dig: “vestigio leviter presso,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 53; cf. “(trop.): vestigia non pressa leviter, sed fixa,id. Sest. 5, 13: “sulcum premere,to draw a furrow, Verg. A. 10, 296: “fossam transversam, inter montes pressit (al. percussit),Front. Strat. 1, 5: “fossa pressa,Plin. Ep. 10, 69, 4: “cavernae in altitudinem pressae,Curt. 5, 1, 28.—
(γ). To strike to the ground, to strike down: “tres famulos,Verg. A. 9, 329: “paucos,Tac. H. 4, 2.—
10. To press closely, compress, press together, close: “oculos,Verg. A. 9, 487: “alicui fauces,Ov. M. 12, 509: “laqueo collum,to strangle, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 37: “angebar ceu guttura forcipe pressus,Ov. M. 9, 78: “presso gutture,compressed, Verg. G. 1, 410; cf.: “siquidem unius praecordia pressit ille (boletus) senis,” i. e. stopped his breath, Juv. 6, 621: “quibus illa premetur Per somnum digitis,choked, id. 14, 221: “amplexu presso,united, in close embrace, Sen. Oedip. 192: “oscula jungere pressa,to exchange kisses, Ov. H. 2, 94; so, “pressa basia,Mart. 6, 34, 1: “presso gradu incedere,in close ranks, foot to foot, Liv. 28, 14: “pede presso,id. 8, 8.—
b. In partic.
(α). To shorten, tighten, draw in: “pressis habenis,Verg. A. 11, 600 (cf.: “laxas dure habenas,id. ib. 1, 63).—
(β). To keep short, prune: “Calenā falce vitem,Hor. C. 1, 31, 9: “luxuriem falce,Ov. M. 14, 628: “falce premes umbras (i. e. arbores umbrantes),Verg. G. 1, 157; 4, 131: “molle salictum,Calp. Ecl. 5, 110.—
(γ). To check, arrest, stop: “premere sanguinem,Tac. A. 15, 64: “vestigia pressit,Verg. A. 6, 197: “attoniti pressere gradum,Val. Fl. 2, 424' dixit, pressoque obmutuit ore, was silent, Verg. A. 6, 155.—
11. To press out, bring out by pressure: “tenerā sucos pressere medullā,Luc. 4, 318; cf.: (equus) collectumque fremens volvit sub naribus ignem, Verg. ap. Sen. Ep. 95, 68, and id. G. 3, 85 Rib.—
12. To frequent: feci ut cotidie praesentem me viderent, habitavi in oculis, pressi forum, Cic. Planc. 27, 66.—
II. Trop.
A. To press, press upon, oppress, overwhelm, weigh down; to urge, drive, importune, pursue, to press close or hard, etc. (class.): “ego istum pro suis factis pessumis pessum premam,Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 49 Lorenz ad loc.: “quae necessitas eum tanta premebat, ut, etc.,Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97: “ea, quae premant, et ea, quae impendeant,id. Fam. 9, 1, 2: “aerumnae, quae me premunt,Sall. J. 14, 22: “pressus gravitate soporis,bound by heavy, deep sleep, Ov. M. 15, 21: “cum aut aere alieno, aut magnitudine tributorum, aut injuriā potentium premuntur,Caes. B. G. 6, 13: “invidia et odio populi premi,Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 228: “premi periculis,id. Rep. 1, 6, 10: “cum a me premeretur,Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 53, § 139; cf.: “aliquem verbo,id. Tusc. 1, 7, 13: “criminibus veris premere aliquem,Ov. M. 14, 401: “cum a plerisque ad exeundum premeretur, exire noluit,was pressed, urged, importuned, Nep. Ages. 6, 1: “a Pompeii procuratoribus sescentis premi coeptus est,Cic. Att. 6, 1, 3: numina nulla premunt; “mortali urgemur ab hoste,Verg. A. 10, 375: “premere reum voce, vultu,Tac. A. 3, 67: “crimen,to pursue obstinately, Quint. 7, 2, 12: “confessionem,to force a confession from one, id. 7, 1, 29: “argumentum etiam atque etiam,to pursue steadily, Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88: “ancipiti mentem formidine pressus,Verg. A. 3, 47: “maerore pressa,Sen. Oct. 103: “veritate pressus negare non potuit,overcome, overpowered, Lact. 4, 13.—
B. Transf.
1. To repress, hide, conceal (mostly poet.): “dum nocte premuntur,Verg. A. 6, 827: “curam sub corde,id. ib. 4, 332: “odium,Plin. Pan. 62: “iram,Tac. A. 6, 50: “pavorem et consternationem mentis vultu,id. ib. 13, 16: “interius omne secretum,Sen. Ep. 3, 4: “dolorem silentio,Val. Max. 3, 3, 1 ext.; cf. silentia, Sil. 12, 646: “aliquid ore,Verg. A. 7, 103: “jam te premet nox,Hor. C. 1, 4, 16.—
2. To lower, diminish, undervalue, disparage, depreciate: “premendorum superiorum arte sese extollebat,Liv. 22, 12: “arma Latini,Verg. A. 11, 402: “opuscula ( = deprimere atque elevare),Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 36: “famam alicujus,Tac. A. 15, 49: “premere ac despicere,Quint. 11, 1, 16: “premere tumentia, humilia extollere,id. ib. 10, 4, 1.—
c. To rule (poet.): “dicione premere populos,Verg. A. 7, 737: “imperio,id. ib. 1, 54: “Mycenas Servitio premet,id. ib. 1, 285.—
3. To suppress, pull down, humble, degrade: “quae (vocabula) nunc situs premit,Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 118: “nec premendo alium me extulisse velim,Liv. 22, 59, 10; cf. id. 39, 41, 1: “premebat reum crimen,id. 3, 13, 1.—
4. To compress, abridge, condense: “haec enim, quae dilatantur a nobis, Zeno sic premebat,Cic. N. D. 2, 7, 20.—
5. To check, arrest, repress, restrain: “cursum ingenii tui, Brute, premit haec importuna clades civitatis,Cic. Brut. 97, 332: “sub imo Corde gemitum,Verg. A. 10, 464: “vocem,to be silent, id. ib. 9, 324: “sermones vulgi,to restrain, Tac. A. 3, 6.—
6. To store up, lay up in the mind, muse upon: “(vocem) ab ore Eripuit pater ac stupefactus numine pressit,Verg. A. 7, 119.—Hence, pressus , a, um, P. a.
I. Moderate, slow, suppressed, kept down.
B. Trop.
1. Of the voice or manner, subdued: “haec cum pressis et flebilibus modis, qui totis theatris maestitiam inferant,Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 106.—
2. Of color, lowered, depressed; hence, dark, gloomy: “color pressus,Pall. 4, 13, 4: “color viridi pressior,Plin. 35, 6, 13, § 32: “spadices pressi,Serv. Verg. G. 3, 82.—
II. Esp., of an orator or of speech.
A. Compressed, concise, plain, without ornament (class.): “fiunt pro grandibus tumidi, pressis exiles, fortibus temerarii, etc.,Quint. 10, 2, 16: “cum Attici pressi et integri, contra Asiani inflati et inanes haberentur,id. 12, 10, 18.—Of style: “pressa et tenuia, et quae minimum ab usu cotidiano recedant,Quint. 10, 1, 102: “pressus et demissus stilus,Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 5; Quint. 4, 2, 117.—Comp.: in concionibus pressior, et circumscriptior, et adductior, more moderate, keeping more within bounds, Plin. Ep. 1, 16, 4.—
B. Close, exact, accurate: “Thucydides ita verbis aptus et pressus, ut,Cic. de Or. 2, 13, 56: quis te fuit umquam in partiundis rebus pressior? more exact, more accurate, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 364, 24: “sicuti taxare pressius crebriusque est, quam tangere,Gell. 2, 6, 5: “quod (periculum) observandum pressiore cautelā censeo,stricter, greater, App. M. 5, p. 160, 36: “cogitationes pressiores,id. ib. 5, p. 163, 32.—So of sounds, precise, intelligible: “(lingua) vocem profusam fingit atque sonos vocis distinctos et pressos facit,Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 149.—Hence, adv.: pressē , with pressure, violently (class.): artius pressiusque conflictata, Atei. Capito ap. Gell. 10, 6, 2.—
B. Closely, tightly.
1. Lit.: “vites pressius putare,Pall. 12, 9: “pressius colla radere,Veg. Vet. 1, 56.—
2. Trop.
a. Of pronunciation, shortly, neatly, trimly: “loqui non aspere, non vaste, non rustice, sed presse, et aequabiliter, et leniter,Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 45; id. Off. 1, 37, 133.—
b. Of the mode of expression, etc., concisely, not diffusely: “definire presse et anguste,Cic. Or. 33, 117: “abundanter dicere, an presse,Quint. 8, 3, 40: “pressius et astrictius scripsi,Plin. Ep. 3, 18, 10.—
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