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pendo , pĕpendi, pensum, 3 (pendissent, for pependissent, Liv. 45, 26 fin.:
I.penderit for pependerit,Paul. Nol. Carm. 14, 122), v. a. and n. etym. dub.; cf. root σφαδ-, σφενδόνη, a sling; Lat. funda.—Lit., to cause to hang down, to suspend; esp. of scales in weighing.
I. Act., to weigh, weigh out.
A. Lit. (very rare: syn. penso, expendo): unumquodque verbum staterā aurariā pendere, Varr. ap. Non. 455, 21: da pensam lanam, Titin. ap. Non. 369, 21; Plin. 19, 3, 15, § 39, read repensum: aere gravi cum uterentur Romani, penso eo, non numerato debitum solvebant, Fest. s. v. pendere, p. 208 Müll.: “pensas examinat herbas,Ov. M. 14, 270.—
2. Transf., to pay, pay out (because, in the earliest times, payments were made by weighing out the metals; v. in the preced. the passage from Fest.; “class.): militis stipendia ideo, quod eam stipem pendebant,Varr. L. L. 5, § 182 Müll.: “Achaei ingentem pecuniam pendunt L. Pisoni quotannis,Cic. Prov. Cons. 3, 5; id. Att. 12, 25, 1: “vectigal populo Romano,Caes. B. G. 5, 23: “vectigal,Liv. 25, 8: “tributum pro navibus,Tac. A. 13, 51: “pretium,id. ib. 2, 87: “coria boum in usus militares,id. ib. 4, 72: “mercedem alicui,Juv. 3, 15.—Absol.: “pro pabulo pendunt,pay, Plin. 12, 14, 32, § 65.—Impers. pass.: “iterumque imperii nostri publicanis penditur,Plin. 12, 14, 32, § 65.—As punishments consisted of fines in money or cattle: pendere poenas, supplicia, etc., signified to pay, suffer, undergo a penalty: “pendere poenas solvere significat,Fest. p. 268 Müll.: “Syrus mihi tergo poenas pendet,Ter. Heaut. 4, 4, 6: “maximas poenas pendo temeritatis meae,Cic. Att. 11, 8, 1: “satis pro temeritate unius hominis suppliciorum pensum esse,Liv. 34, 61: “capitis poenas,Ov. F. 3, 845: “poenas violatae religionis sanguine et caedibus,Just. 8, 2, 4: “magna supplicia perfidiae,id. 11, 4, 2: “crimen, culpam,Val. Fl. 4, 477.—Rarely in this signif. absol., to suffer any thing (poet.): “tuis nam pendit in arvis Delius,Val. Fl. 1, 445.—
B. Trop.
1. To weigh mentally, to ponder, consider, deliberate upon, decide (class.; “syn.: pensito, trutinor): vos eam (rem) suo, non nominis pondere penditote,Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 1: “in philosophiā res spectatur, non verba penduntur,id. Or. 16, 51: “causam ex veritate,id. Quint. 1, 5: “rem levi conjecturā,id. Rosc. Am. 22, 62.—
2. (Acc. to A. 2.) To pay, render (poet.): “dignas pendere grates,Stat. Th. 11, 223.—
II. Neutr., to weigh (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): “tantundem pendere par est,Lucr. 1, 361: “talentum ne minus pondo octoginta Romanis ponderibus pendat,Liv. 38, 38, 13; Plin. 9, 15, 17, § 44; id. 30, 48 fin., § 93; id. 18, 7, 12, § 66; id. 31, 6, 31, § 58 (in Sen. Ep. 66, 30, read pendent).—Hence, pensus , a, um, P. a., lit. weighed; hence, trop., esteemed, valued, prized, dear (as P. a. not in Cic. or Cæs.): “utra condicio pensior, Virginemne an viduam habere?Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 61: ut nihil quicquam esset carius pensiusque nobis quam nosmetipsi, Taurus ap. Gell. 12, 5, 7.—Esp., as subst.: pensum , i, n., something weighed.
A. Weight, consideration, scruple, importance, only in gen. sing.: nihil pensi habere aliquid, to lay no weight or stress upon a thing, to attach no value to, be indifferent to, care nothing about: “sua parvi pendere, aliena cupere, ... nihil pensi neque moderati habere,Sall. C. 12, 2: “nihil pensi neque sancti habere,id. J. 41, 9: “neque id quibus modis assequeretur, quicquam pensi habebat,id. C. 5, 6: “prorsus neque dicere, neque facere quicquam pensi habebat,id. ib. 23, 2: “nihil pensi habuit, quin, etc.,Suet. Dom. 12; id. Ner. 34: “ut neque fas neque fidem pensi haberet,Tac. A. 13, 15: aliquid ratum pensumque habere, Att. Capitol. ap. Gell. 13, 12, 2. —So, non pensi ducere (very rare), Val. Max. 2, 9, 3.—Also, non adest or est alicui pensi: nec mihi adest tantillum pensi jam, quos capiam calceos, I don't care in the least, am perfectly indifferent, Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 52: “sed illis nec quid dicerent, nec quid facerent, quicquam umquam pensi fuisse,they never cared at all, Liv. 34, 49: “quibus si quicquam pensi umquam fuisset, non ea consilia de republicā habuissent,if they had ever had regard for any considerations, Sall. C. 52, 34. —
B. Prop., the wool weighed out to a slave to spin in a day; hence, a day's work in spinning, and, in gen., spinning, a spinner's task.
1. Lit. (mostly ante-class. and poet.): “pensum facere,Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 63; id. Men. 5, 2, 45: “nocturna carpentes pensa puellae,Verg. G. 1, 391: “carmine quo captae dum fusis mollia pensa Devolvunt, etc.,id. ib. 4, 348: “famulasque ad lumina longo Exercet penso,id. A. 8, 412; Prop. 3, 15, (4, 14), 15: “castrensia,” i. e. for military garments, id. 4 (5), 3, 33: “pensa manu ducunt,Juv. 12, 65: “lanificam revocas ad sua pensa manum,Ov. Am. 1, 13, 24; id. H. 3, 75; Just. 1, 3, 2.—Poet., a thread spun by the Fates: “durae peragunt pensa sorores,Sen. Herc. Fur. 181: “jamque in fine dies et inexorabile pensum Deficit,Stat. S. 3, 3, 172: mortale resolvere, to unbind his mortal thread, i. e. to make him immortal, Calp. Ecl. 4, 137.—
2. Trop., a charge, duty, office (so in Cic.; cf.: “ministerium, munus, officium): pensum meum lepide accurabo,Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 33; cf.: “meum confeci,id. Pers. 2, 4, 1: “absolvere,to perform one's duty, Varr. R. R. 2, 2: “me ad meum munus pensumque revocabo,Cic. de Or. 3, 30, 119; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 46, § 109: “nominis familiaeque,Liv. 4, 52: “operis sui peragere,Col. 3, 10, 7.—Hence, adv.: pensē , carefully, considerately (post-class.): pensius, Flav. ap. Symm. Ep. 2, 34.
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