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rēs , rei (rēi with e long;
I.gen., Lucr. 2, 112; 548; 6, 918; dat., id. 1, 688; 2, 236; rei, gen., monosyl. at the end of the verse, Lucr. 3, 918; “and in the middle of the verse,id. 4, 885, and Poët. ap. Lact. 6, 6), f. etym. dub.; perh. root ra- of reor, ratus; cf. Germ. Ding; Engl. thing, from denken, to think; prop., that which is thought of; cf. also λόγος, Lid. and Scott, 9, a thing, object, being; a matter, affair, event, fact, circumstance, occurrence, deed, condition, case, etc.; and sometimes merely = something (cf.: causa, ratio, negotium).
I. In gen.: “unde initum primum capiat res quaeque movendi,Lucr. 1, 383; cf. id. 1, 536: “in partes res quaeque minutas Distrahitur,id. 2, 826: summe Sol, qui omnes res inspicis, Enn. ap. Prob. Verg. E. 6, 31 (Trag. v. 321 Vahl.): “versus, quos ego de Rerum Naturā pangere conor,Lucr. 1, 25; cf. id. 1, 126; 5, 54: “rerum natura creatrix,id. 2, 1117: “divinarum humanarumque rerum, tum initiorum causarumque cujusque rei cognitio,Cic. Tusc. 5, 3, 7 (v. divinus): “haeret haec res,Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 182: “profecto, ut loquor, ita res est,id. ib. 2, 1, 19: “haud mentior, resque uti facta dico,id. ib. 2, 1, 23: “de Alcumenā ut rem teneatis rectius,id. ib. prol. 110: “in tantis rebus (sc. in re publicā defendendā),Cic. Rep. 1, 3, 4 et saep.: “quo Averna vocantur nomine, id ab re Impositum est, quia sunt avibus contraria cunctis,from the nature of the thing, Lucr. 6, 740; cf. id. 6, 424; Liv. 1, 17: “si res postulabit,the condition of the case, Cic. Lael. 13, 44: scaena rei totius haec, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 11, 3: “fugam in se nemo convertitur Nec recedit loco, quin statim rem gerat,does his duty, stands his ground, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 84; so, res gerere, v. gero; hence, too, rerum scriptor, for a historian, v. scriptor, and cf. II. H. infra.—
B. With adj. of quality, to express condition, etc.: “illic homo a me sibi malam rem arcessit,is bringing a bad business on himself, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 171; so, “res mala,a wretched condition, Sall. C. 20, 13; and more freq. in plur.: “bonis tuis rebus meas res irrides malas,circumstances, condition, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45; id. Rud. 3, 3, 12: “res secundae,good fortune, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30; cf. Liv. 3, 9: “res prosperae,Nep. Dion, 6, 1; id. Eum. 5, 1: “in secundissimis rebus,Cic. Off. 1, 26, 91: “adversae res,id. ib. 1, 26, 90; Hor. S. 2, 2, 136; 2, 8, 73: “res belli adversae,Liv. 10, 6: “res dubiae,Sall. C. 10, 2; 39, 3; Liv. 2, 50; 7, 30; “v. bonus, florens, salvus, adversus, dubius, novus, arduus, etc.— Freq. in curses, etc.: in malam rem,go to the bad, Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 37; id. And. 2, 1, 17: “malam rem hinc ibis?id. Eun. 3, 3, 30.—
C. With an adj. in a periphrasis: “abhorrens ab re uxoriā,matrimony, Ter. And. 5, 1, 10: “in arbitrio rei uxoriae,dowry, Cic. Off. 1, 15, 61: “rem divinam nisi compitalibus ... ne faciat,a religious act, act of worship, a sacrifice, Cato, R. R. 5, 4: “bellicam rem administrari majores nostri nisi auspicato noluerunt,Cic. Div. 2, 36, 76; Hor. C. 4, 3, 6: “erat ei pecuaria res ampla et rustica,Cic. Quint. 3, 12: res rustica, agriculture: “rei rusticae libro primo,Col. 11, 1, 2; id. 1, praef. § “19: liber, quem de rebus rusticis scripsi,Cic. Sen. 15, 54: “navalis rei certamina,naval battles, Amm. 26, 3, 5: “res militaris,Cic. Rab. Post. 1, 2: “rei militaris gloria,id. Mur. 9, 22; Nep. Milt. 8, 4: “res frumentaria,forage, Caes. B. C. 3, 16; id. B. G. 1, 23; 4, 7: “armatae rei scientissimus,Amm. 25, 4, 7: “peritus aquariae rei,id. 28, 2, 2: “res judicaria,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 12, § 31: “res ludicra,play, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 180: “uti rebus veneriis,Cic. Sen. 14, 47; Nep. Alc. 11, 4: “res Veneris,Lucr. 2, 173; Ov. R. Am. 431; v. also familiaris, judiciaria, militaris, navalis, etc., and cf. II. G. infra. —
D. With pronouns or adjectives, as an emphatic periphrase for the neutr.: “ibi me inclamat Alcumena: jam ea res me horrore afficit,this now, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 16; cf.: De. Estne hoc, ut dico? Li. Rectam instas viam: “Ea res est,it is even so, id. As. 1, 1, 40: “de fratre confido ita esse ut semper volui. Multa signa sunt ejus rei,of it, Cic. Att. 1, 10, 5: quos (μελιττῶνας) alii μελιττοτροφεῖα appellant, eandem rem quidam mellaria. Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 12: “sunt ex te quae scitari volo, Quarum rerum, etc.,Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 13; cf. Caes. B. G. 3, 4: “quibus de rebus quoniam nobis contigit ut aliquid essemus consecuti,Cic. Rep. 1, 8, 13: “quā super re interfectum esse Hippotem dixisti? Pac. ap. Fest. s. v. superescit, p. 244: resciscet Amphitruo rem omnem,every thing, all, Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 30: “nulla res tam delirantes homines concinat cito,nothing, id. Am. 2, 2, 96; cf.: “neque est ulla res, in quā, etc.,Cic. Rep. 1, 7, 12; 1, 5, 9; cf. “also: sumptu ne parcas ullā in re, quod ad valetudinem opus sit,id. Fam. 16, 4, 2: “magna res principio statim bello,a great thing, a great advantage, Liv. 31, 23 fin.: “nil admirari prope res est una Solaque, quae, etc.,the only thing, only means, Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 1 et saep. — Emphatically with sup.: “scilicet rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma,the most beautiful thing in the world, Verg. G. 2, 534; Quint. 1, 12, 16 Spald. p. 81. — “Of persons, etc.: est genus hominum, qui esse primos se omnium rerum volunt,Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17: “maxime rerum,Ov. H. 9, 107; cf.: “maxima rerum Roma,Verg. A. 7, 602; Ov. M. 13, 508: “fortissima rerum animalia,id. ib. 12, 502: “pulcherrime rerum,id. H. 4, 125; id. A. A. 1, 213; id. M. 8, 49: “dulcissime rerum,Hor. S. 1, 9, 4.—
E. In adverb. phrases: “e re natā melius fieri haud potuit,after what has happened, Ter. Ad. 3, 1, 8: “pro re natā,according to circumstances, Cic. Att. 7, 8, 2; 14, 6, 1: “pro tempore et pro re,Caes. B. G. 5, 8: “factis benignus pro re,according to circumstances, Liv. 7, 33, 3; Sall. J. 50, 2: “pro re pauca loquar,Verg. A. 4, 337; Lucr. 6, 1280: “ex re et ex tempore,Cic. Fam. 12, 19, 3: “e re respondi,Cat. 10, 8.
II. In partic.
A. Pregn., an actual thing, the thing itself, reality, truth, fact; opposed to appearance, mere talk, the mere name of a thing: “ecastor, re experior, quanti facias uxorem tuam,Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 10: “desiste dictis nunc jam miseram me consolari: Nisi quid re praesidium apparas, etc.,id. Rud. 3, 3, 21: rem ipsam loqui. Ter. And. 1, 2, 31: “rem fabulari,Plaut. Trin 2, 4, 87: “nihil est aliud in re,in fact, Liv. 10, 8, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.: “se ipsa res aperit,Nep. Paus. 3, 7: “ex re decerpere fructus,Hor. S. 1, 2, 79; “opp. verbum, vox, opinio, spes, nomen, etc.: rem opinor spectari oportere, non verba,Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; cf.: te rogo, ut rem potiorem oratione ducas, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 5: “non modo res omnes, sed etiam rumores cognoscamus,Cic. Att. 5, 5, 1: “qui hos deos non re, sed opinione esse dicunt,id. N. D. 3, 21, 53: “Peripateticos et Academicos nominibus differentes, re congruentes,id. Ac. 2, 5, 15: “quod nos honestum, illi vanum ... verbis quam re probabilius vocant,Quint. 3, 8, 22; Sen. Ep. 120, 9: “eum, tametsi verbo non audeat, tamen re ipsā de maleficio suo confiteri,id. Rosc. Am. 42, 123; cf. Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 15: “vides quantum distet argumentatio tua ab re ipsā atque a veritate,Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 44. — Hence, abl. sing., often strengthened by verā (sometimes as one word, reverā), in fact, really, in truth, indeed, in reality: “haec ille, si verbis non audet, re quidem verā palam loquitur,Cic. Quint. 17, 56; so, “re quidem verā,id. Clu. 19, 54; id. Sest. 7, 15: “re autem verā,id. Fam. 1, 4, 2; “and simply re verā,id. Quint. 2, 7; id. Div. 2, 54, 110; id. Balb. 3, 7: “re verāque,Lucr. 2, 48; cf.: “et re verā,indeed, in fact, Cic. Fam. 3, 5, 1; Liv. 33, 11, 3; 35, 31, 12; 36, 6, 1; Nep. Ages. 2, 3; id. Phoc. 3, 3; Curt. 3, 13, 5; 4, 16, 19; Val. Max. 9, 13, ext. 1; Just. 5, 1, 8; 12, 13, 10; Plin. Ep. 6, 33, 1.—
B. Effects, substance, property, possessions: “mihi Chrysalus Perdidit filium, me atque rem omnem Meam,Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 26; cf.: Ph. Habuitne rem? Ly. Habuit. Ph. Qui eam perdidit ... Mercaturamne an venales habuit, ubi rem perdidit? id. Trin. 2, 2, 49 sq.: “quibus et re salvā et perditā profueram,Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 27: “rem talentum decem,id. Phorm. 2, 3, 46; Juv. 3, 16: “avidior ad rem,Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 51: “rem facere,to make money, Cic. Att. 2, 2, 12: “res eos jampridem, fides deficere nuper coepit,id. Cat. 2, 5, 10: “qui duo patrimonia accepisset remque praeterea bonis et honestis rationibus auxisset,id. Rab. Post. 14, 38: “libertino natum patre et in tenui re,in narrow circumstances, Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 20 et saep.; v. also familiaris.— In plur.: quantis opibus, quibus de rebus, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44 (Trag. v. 396 Vahl.): “privatae res,Cic. Att. 9, 7, 5.—
2. Hence, law t. t., whatever may be the subject of a right, whether corporeal or incorporeal (v. Sandars, Introd. to Just. Inst. p. 42 sqq.): “res corporales,Just. Inst. 2, 2, 1 sq.; Gai. Inst. 2, 12; Dig. 1, 8, 1: “res in patrimonio, res extra patrimonium,Just. Inst. 2, 1 pr.; Gai. Inst. 2, 1: “res sanctae,Just. Inst. 2, 1, 10; v. also mancipium, privatus, etc.—
C. Benefit, profit, advantage, interest, weal: “res magis quaeritur, quam, etc.,Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 6: “melius illi consulas quam rei tuae,id. Cist. 1, 1, 98: “haec tuā re feceris,to your advantage, id. Capt. 2, 2, 46.— Most freq. with the prepositions in, ex, ob, ab, etc.: “quasi istic minor mea res agatur quam tua,is interested, affected, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113 (v. ago): “si in rem tuam esse videatur,Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 2: “vide si hoc in rem deputas,id. ib. 3, 3, 19: “quod in rem recte conducat tuam,id. Capt. 2, 3, 26: “si in remst utrique,Ter. And. 3, 3, 14: “quid mihi melius est, quid magis in rem est, quam? etc.,useful, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 1: “tamen in rem fore credens universos adpellare,Sall. C. 20, 1: “omnia quae in rem videbantur esse,Curt. 6, 2, 21: “ad conparanda ea quae in rem erant,Liv. 30, 4, 6: “imperat quae in rem sunt,id. 26, 44, 7; 22, 3, 2: “ex tuā re non est, ut ego emoriar,for your advantage, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 102: An. Non pudet Vanitatis? Do. Minime, dum ob rem, to the purpose, with advantage, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 41: ob rem facere, usefully, with advantage or profit, Sall. J. 31, 5: subdole blanditur, ab re Consulit blandiloquentulus, contrary to his interest, i. e. to his injury, Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12 Brix ad loc.: “haud id est ab re aucupis,id. As. 1, 3, 71: “haec haud ab re duxi referre,Liv. 8, 11, 1: “non ab re esse Quinctio visum est interesse, etc.,id. 35, 32, 6; Plin. 27, 8, 35, § 57; Suet. Aug. 94; Gell. 18, 4, 6; 1, 26, 4; Macr. S. 1, 4, 19.—
D. Cause, reason, ground, account; only in the connection eā (hac) re, and eam ob rem, adverb., therefore, on that account: “ re tot res sunt, ubi bene deicias,Cato, R. R. 158, 2: “hac re nequeunt ex omnibus omnia gigni, Quod, etc.,Lucr. 1, 172; cf.: “illud re a se esse concessum, quod, etc.,Cic. Ac. 2, 34, 111: “patrem exoravi, tibi ne noceat, neu quid ob eam rem succenseat,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 39; cf.: “quoi rei?for what purpose? id. As. 3, 2, 43; id. Poen. 2, 3, 3.—Hence (by uniting into one word) the causal adverbs quare and quamobrem, v. h. vv.—
E. An affair, matter of business, business: “cum et de societate inter se multa communicarent et de totā illā ratione atque re Gallicanā,Cic. Quint. 4, 15: “rem cum aliquo transigere,id. Clu. 13, 39. — “Hence, transf., in gen.: res alicui est cum aliquo,to have to do with any one, Cic. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Sest. 16, 37; id. Fam. 9, 20, 2; Caes. B. G. 7, 77; cf.: “famigeratori res sit cum damno et malo,Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 182 Brix ad loc.— Also without a dat.: “quoniam cum senatore res est,Cic. Fam. 13, 26, 3; “esp., in mal. part.: rem habere cum aliquo or aliquā,to have to do with any one, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 35; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 39; 58. —Ellipt.: “jam biennium est, quom mecum rem coepit,Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 15. —
F. A case in law, a lawsuit, cause, suit (more gen. than causa): “ubi res prolatae sunt,Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 10: “res agi,id. Men. 4, 2, 19; id. Aul. 3, 4, 13: “quibus res erat in controversiā, ea vocabatur lis,Varr. L. L. 7, § 93; cf. “(prob. in allusion to this legal form): tot homines ... statuere non potuisse, utrum diem tertium an perendinum ... rem an litem dici oporteret,Cic. Mur. 12, 27; cf. “also: quarum rerum litium causarum condixit pater patratus, etc., an ancient formula,Liv. 1, 32: “de rebus ab aliquo cognitis judicatisque dicere,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 48, § 118: “pecunias capere ob rem judicandam,id. Fin. 2, 16, 54: “si res certabitur olim,Hor. S. 2, 5, 27; 1, 10, 15; 1, 9, 41; id. Ep. 1, 16, 43: “tractu temporis futurum, ut res pereat,Dig. 3, 3, 12: “rem differre,ib. 43, 30, 3: res judicata dicitur, quae finem controversiarum pronuntiatione judicis accipit, ib. 42, 1, 1 et saep.—
G. An affair, esp. a battle, campaign, military operations; in phrase rem (or res) gerere: “res gesta virtute,Cic. Fin. 5, 23, 66: “ut res gesta est ordine narrare,Ter. Ad. 3, 5, 3: “his rebus gestis,Caes. B. G. 5, 8: “res gerere,Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 33: “rem bene gerere,id. ib. 1, 8, 1; Ter. Ad. 5, 1, 13: “comminus rem gerunt,Caes. B. G. 5, 44: “res gestae,Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 7; 2, 1, 251: “adversus duos simul rem gerere,Liv. 21, 60: “rem male gerere,Nep. Them. 3, 3; Hor. S. 2, 3, 74: “in relatione rerum ab Scythis gestarum,Just. 2, 1, 1; cf.: “rem agere,Hor. S. 1, 9, 4; id. A. P. 82: “ante rem,before the battle, Liv. 4, 40: “cum Thebanis sibi rem esse existimant,Nep. Pel. 1, 3; Cic. Sest. 16, 37.—
H. Acts, events, as the subject of narration, a story, history: “res in unam sententiam scripta,Auct. Her. 1, 12, 20: “cui lecta potenter erit res,Hor. A. P. 40; id. S. 1, 10, 57; id. Ep. 1, 19, 29: “in medias res auditorem rapere,id. A. P. 148; 310: “agitur res in scaenis,id. ib. 179; cf.: “numeros animosque secutus, non res,id. Ep. 1, 19, 25; Phaedr. 5, 1, 12: “sicut in rebus ejus (Neronis) exposuimus,Plin. 2, 83, 85, § 199: “litterae, quibus non modo res omnis, sed etiam rumores cognoscamus,Cic. Att. 5, 5, 1: “res populi Romani perscribere, Liv. praef. § 1: res Persicae,history, Nep. Con. 5, 4; id. Cat. 3, 2.—
K. Res publica, also as one word, respublica, the common weal, a commonwealth, state, republic (cf. civitas); also, civil affairs, administration, or power, etc.: qui pro republicā, non pro suā obsonat, Cato ap. Ruf. 18, p. 210; cf.: “erat tuae virtutis, in minimis tuas res ponere, de re publicā vehementius laborare,Cic. Fam. 4, 9, 3: “dummodo ista privata sit calamitas et a rei publicae periculis sejungatur,id. Cat. 1, 9; cf.: “si re publicā non possis frui, stultum est nolle privatā,id. Fam. 4, 9, 4: “egestates tot egentissimorum hominum nec privatas posse res nec rem publicam sustinere,id. Att. 9, 7, 5 (v. publicus); Cato ap. Gell. 10, 14, 3: auguratum est, rem Romanam publicam summam fore, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45: “quo utiliores rebus suis publicis essent,Cic. Off. 1, 44, 155: “commutata ratio est rei totius publicae,id. Att. 1, 8, 4: pro republicā niti, Cato ap. Charis. p. 196 fin.: “merere de republicā,Plaut. Am. prol. 40: “de re publicā disputatio . . . dubitationem ad rem publicam adeundi tollere, etc.,Cic. Rep. 1, 7, 12: “oppugnare rem publicam,id. Cael. 1, 1; id. Har. Resp. 8, 15; id. Sest. 23, 52: “paene victā re publicā,id. Fam. 12, 13, 1: “delere rem publicam,id. Sest. 15, 33; Lact. 6, 18, 28.—Esp. in the phrase e re publicā, for the good of the State, for the public benefit: “senatūs consultis bene et e re publicā factis,Cic. Phil. 3, 12, 30: “ea si dicam non esse e re publicā dividi,id. Fam. 13, 8, 2; id. Mil. 5, 14; Liv. 8, 4, 12; 25, 7, 4; 34, 34, 9; Suet. Rhet. 1 init.—Post-class. and rare, also ex republicā, Gell. 6, 3, 47; 11, 9, 1; “but exque is used for euphony (class.): id eum recte atque ordine exque re publicā fecisse,Cic. Phil. 3, 15, 38; 5, 13, 36; 10, 11, 26.— In plur.: “eae nationes respublicas suas amiserunt, C. Gracch. ap. Fest. s. h. v. p. 286 Müll.: hoc loquor de tribus his generibus rerum publicarum,Cic. Rep. 1, 28, 44: “circuitus in rebus publicis commutationum,id. ib. 1, 29, 45 et saep.—
2. Sometimes simply res, the State (in the poets, and since the Aug. per. in prose): unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 24, 84 (Ann. v. 313 Vahl.): “hic (Marcellus) rem Romanam sistet,Verg. A. 6, 858; cf.: “nec rem Romanam tam desidem umquam fuisse,Liv. 21, 16; 1, 28: “parva ista non contemnendo majores nostri maximam hanc rem fecerunt,id. 6, 41 fin.: “Romana,Hor. C. S. 66; id. Ep. 1, 12, 25; Ov. M. 14, 809; Sall. C. 6, 3; cf.: “ut paulo ante animum inter Fidenatem Romanamque rem ancipitem gessisti,Liv. 1, 28 fin.: “Albana,id. 1, 6.— In plur.: “res Asiae evertere,Verg. A. 3, 1: “custode rerum Caesare,Hor. C. 4, 15, 17; cf.: “res sine discordiā translatae,Tac. H. 1, 29; so (also in Cic.), rerum potiri, v. potior. —
L. Res novae, political changes, a revolution, etc.; v. novus.
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