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rĕus , i, m., and rĕa , ae, f. res, jurid. t. t.
I. Originally, a party to an action (res), either plaintiff or defendant; afterwards restricted to the party accused, defendant, prisoner, etc.: “reos appello non eos modo, qui arguuntur, sed omnes, quorum de re disceptatur. Sic enim olim loquebantur,Cic. de Or. 2, 43, 183; cf.: “reos appello, quorum res est,id. ib. 2, 79, 321: reus nunc dicitur, qui causam dicit: et item qui quid promisit spoponditve ac debet. At Gallus Aelius, lib. II. Significationum verborum quae ad jus pertinent, ait: “reus est qui cum altero litem contestatam habet, sive is egit, sive cum eo actum est,Fest. p. 273 Müll. It is found in this original signif. in the Lex XII. Tab., Fragm. ap. Fest. l. l., which Ulpian periphrases: “si judex vel alteruter ex litigatoribus morbo sontico impediatur,Dig. 2, 11, 2, § 3.—
II. In the stricter sense.
A. A party obliged or under obligation to do or pay any thing, one answerable or responsible for any thing, a bondsman, a debtor: reus dictus est a re, quam promisit ac debet. Reus stipulando est, qui stipulatur. Reus promittendo est, qui suo nomine alteri quid pro altero promisit, Fest. pp. 135 and 227; cf. Dig. 45, 2, 1; and: “delegare est vice suā alium reum dare creditori vel cui jusserit,ib. 46, 2, 11: “pecuniae reus fieri,ib. 16, 1, 17: “dotis,ib. 23, 3, 22, § 2: “locationis,ib. 19, 2, 13, § 9.—
2. Transf., in gen., one who is bound by any thing, who is answerable for any thing, a debtor (very rare): quo intentius custodiae serventur, opportuna loca dividenda praefectis esse, ut suae quisque partis tutandae reus sit, answerable or responsible for, Liv. 25, 30: voti reus, bound by my vow (sc. in having obtained my desire), Verg. A. 5, 237 (voti reus, debitor, Serv.: “voti reus: Haec vox propria sacrorum est, ut reus vocetur, qui suscepto voto se numinibus obligat, damnatus autem, qui promissa vota non solvit,Macr. S. 3, 2). —
B. One who is accused or arraigned, a defendant, prisoner, a criminal, culprit (the predominant signif. at all periods and in all styles; cf.: “nocens, sons): quis erat petitor? Fannius. Quis reus? Flavius. Quis judex? Cluvius,Cic. Rosc. Com. 14, 42: “inopia reorum ... aliquos ad columnam Maeniam reos reperire,id. Div. in Caecil. 16, 50: “privato Milone et reo ad populum accusante P. Clodio,id. Mil. 15, 40: “reus Milonis lege Plotiā fuit Clodius quoad vixit,id. ib. 13 fin.: “facere aliquem reum,to accuse one, Nep. Alcib. 4, 3.— “Persons under criminal charges usually put on mourning: rei ad populum Furius et Manlius circumeunt sordidati,Liv. 2, 54, 3 (cf. id. 2, 61; 3, 58; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, § 152). — In fem.: “ut socrus adulescentis rea ne fiat,Cic. Fam. 13, 54: “tota rea citaretur Etruria,id. Mil. 19, 50: “rea es,Sen. Contr. 4, 29. —
(β). With a statement of the crime or the punishment, one guilty of any crime, one condemned to any punishment: “facti reus,Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 16: “aliquem rei capitalis reum facere,Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 94; cf. “capitis,Quint. 12, 10, 70: “avaritiae,Cic. Fl. 3, 7: “lenocinii,Quint. 5, 10, 47: “parricidii,id. 7, 2, 17: “manifesti peculatūs,id. 12, 1, 43 et saep.: “Sestius, qui est de vi reus,Cic. Sest. 35, 75; so, “de vi,id. Vatin. 17, 41; Quint. 11, 1, 51: “de ambitu,Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 3, 2: “de moribus,Quint. 4, 2, 3: “est enim reus uterque ob eandem causam et eodem crimine,Cic. Vatin. 17, 41: “mortis reus,Vulg. Matt. 26, 66: “cum equester ordo reus a consulibus citaretur,Cic. Sest. 15, 35. — For the expressions reum facere, agere, peragere, postulare, inter reos referre, etc., v. h. vv.—
2. Transf., in gen.: “judex sim Reusque ad eam rem,Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12: “reus fortunae,that was to be blamed for a misfortune, Liv. 6, 24; 9, 8: “facinoris,Tac. A. 2, 66: “reus agor,Ov. H. 20, 91.— In fem.: “fortuna una accusatur, una agitur rea,Plin. 2, 7, 5, § 22: “cum rea laudis agar,Ov. H. 14, 120.
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