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Sāturnus (old collat. form Sāteur-nus , Fest. pp. 323 and 325 Müll., and SAETVRNVS, on a vase; v. Ritschl, de Fictil. Litteratis, and Schweizer, Zeitschr. für vergl. Sprachf. 4, p. 65 sq.), i, m. 1. sero; “ab satu est dictus Saturnus,Varr. L. L. 5, § 64 Müll.,
I.Saturn; according to the myth, the most ancient king of Latium, who came to Italy in the reign of Janus; afterwards honored as the god of agriculture and of civilization in general; hence early identified with the Κρόνος of the Greeks: “qui terram colerent, eos solos reliquos esse ex stirpe Saturni regis,Varr. R. R. 3, 1, 5: “principes (dei) in Latio Saturnus et Ops,id. L. L. 5, § 57 Müll.: “primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo, Arma Jovis fugiens et regnis exsul ademptis. Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis Composuit legesque dedit Latiumque vocari Maluit, etc.,Verg. A. 8, 319 sq.; Ov. F. 1, 193; 1, 235 sq.; 6, 29 sq.; Tib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 5, 9 et saep.—As the god of time, Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64; Lact. 1, 12, 9.—As the sun-god of the Phœnicians, = Baal, Curt. 4, 3, 15: “Saturni sacra dies,” i. e. Saturday, Tib. 1, 3, 18: “Saturni Stella,the planet Saturn, Cic. N. D. 2, 20, 52; 2, 46, 119; id. Div. 1, 39, 85.—As subst.: Sāturnus , i, m., the planet Saturn, Hor. C. 2, 17, 23.—Hence,
A. Sāturnĭus , a, um, adj., of or belonging to Saturn, Saturnian: “stella,” i. e. the planet Saturn, Cic. Rep. 6, 17, 17: mons, an ancient name of the Capitoline Hill, acc. to Varr. L. L. 5, § 42 Müll., and Fest. p. 322 ib.: terra, i. e. Latium, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 42 ib. (Ann. v. 25 Vahl.); Ov. F. 5, 625; also, “tellus,Verg. A. 8, 329; “and arva,id. ib. 1, 569; in a wider sense: tellus, for Italy, id. G. 2, 173: “regna,” i. e. the golden age, id. E. 4, 6: proles, i. e. Picus, a son of Saturn, Ov. M. 14, 320: “gens,” i. e. the Italians, id. F. 1, 237: Juno, as daughter of Saturn, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 4, 576 (Ann. v. 65 Vahl.); Verg. A. 12, 156; Ov. M. 4, 447: “Juppiter,id. ib. 9, 242; “also pater (sc. Superum),Verg. A. 4, 372; Ov. M. 1, 163: “domitor maris,” i. e. Neptune, Verg. A. 5, 799: “virgo,” i. e. Vesta, Ov. F. 6, 383: versus, the Saturnian verse, the oldest kind of metre among the Romans, in use down to the time of Ennius, Fest. s. v. Saturnus, p. 325 Müll.; cf. “of the same, numerus,Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 158: “carmen,Ter. Maur. p. 2439: “metrum,Diom. p. 512; v. Herm. Doctr. Metr. III. 9, and Bernhardy, Röm. Lit. p. 70 sq.—
2. Substt.
a. Sāturnĭus , ii, m.
(α). Jupiter, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 1113 P. (Ann. v. 444 Vahl.); Ov. M. 8, 703; Claud. Gigant. 16.—
(β). Pluto, Ov. M. 5, 420.—
(γ). Sātur-nĭi , ōrum, m., the inhabitants of the old town of Saturnia, on the Capitoline Hill, acc. to Fest. p. 325 Müll.—
b. Sāturnĭa , ae, f.
(α). Juno, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 1103 P. (Ann. v. 483 Vahl.); Verg. A. 1, 23; Ov. F. 1, 265; 2, 191; 5, 235; id. M. 1, 612 et saep. —
(β). The town built by Saturn on the Capitoline Hill, the fabled beginning of Rome, acc. to Varr. L. L. 5, § 42 Müll.; Verg. A. 8, 358; Ov. F. 6, 31; Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 68; Fest. p. 322 Müll.—
B. Sāturnālis , e, adj., of or belonging to Saturn, Saturnian; as an adj. only with festum, = Saturnalia.—
2. Subst.: Sāturnālĭa , iōrum, ibus (cf. on the gen.: “certum est licito et Saturnalium et Saturnaliorum dici,Macr. S. 1, 4; Ruddim. 1, p. 97; v. also Bacchanalia, Compitalia, Vinalia, and the like), a general festival in honor of Saturn, beginning on the 17th of December and lasting several days; the Saturnalia, Macr. S. 1, 7 sq.; Liv. 2, 21 sq.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 22 Müll.; Fest. s. v. ferias, p. 86 ib.; Cato, R. R. 57, 2; Varr. L. L. 5, § 64 Müll.; Cat. 14, 15; Cic. Att. 5, 20, 5; id. Cat. 3, 4, 10; Liv. 22, 1 fin.; Hor. S. 2, 3, 5 et saep.: “prima,” i. e. the first day of the Saturnalia, Liv. 30, 36 Drak. N. cr.: “secunda, tertia,the second, third day of the Saturnalia, Cic. Att. 13, 52, 1.—Transf.: “vestra Saturnalia, said of the feriae matronales, as the festival of the women,Mart. 5, 84, 11.— “Prov.: non semper Saturnalia erunt,every day cannot be a holiday, Sen. Apoc. 12, § 2. —Hence,
b. Sāturnālĭcĭus or -tĭus , a, um, adj., of or belonging to the Saturnalia, Saturnalian (post-Aug.): “tributum,” i.e. a presen given on the Saturnalia, Mart. 10, 17, 1: “nuces,id. 5, 30, 8; 7, 91, 2: “versus,id. 5, 19, 11.—
C. Sāturnĭăcus , a, um, adj., of Saturn (late Lat.), Aug. c. Faust. 20, 13.
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